Published online Mar 6, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i7.1741
Peer-review started: November 18, 2020
First decision: December 30, 2020
Revised: January 5, 2021
Accepted: January 21, 2021
Article in press: January 21, 2021
Published online: March 6, 2021
Vasculitis, a systemic disorder with inflammation of blood vessel walls, can develop broad spectrum of signs and symptoms according to involvement of various organs, and therefore, early diagnosis of vasculitis is challenging. We herein describe a patient who developed a special case of systemic vasculitis with mononeuropathy multiplex, rectal perforation and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) presented with pulmonary embolism.
A 61-year-old woman visited hospital with complaints of myalgia and occasional fever. She was initially diagnosed as proctitis and treated with antibiotics, however, there was no improvement. In addition, she also complained right foot drop with hypesthesia, and left 2nd and 3rd finger tingling sensation. She underwent nerve conduction study for evaluation, and it revealed sensorimotor polyneuropathy in the left arm and bilateral legs. Subsequent sural nerve biopsy strongly suggested vasculitic neuropathy. Based on nerve biopsy and clinical manifestation, she was diagnosed with vasculitis and treated with immuno-suppressive therapy. During treatment, sudden rectal perforation and pulmonary thromboembolism occurred, and further laboratory study suggested probable concomitant APS. Emergency Hartmann operation was performed for rectal perforation, and anti-coagulation therapy was started for APS. After few cycles of immunosuppressive therapy, tingling sensation and weakness in her hand and foot had been partially recovered and vasculitis was considered to be stationary.
Vasculitis can be presented with a variety of signs and symptoms, therefore, clinicians should always consider the possibility of diagnosis.
Core Tip: We present a special case of systemic vasculitis with initially developed a mononeuropathy multiplex, followed by rectal perforation, and antiphospholipid syndrome presented with pulmonary embolism. Systemic vasculitis can be presented with a variety of signs and symptoms, therefore, clinicians should always consider the possibility of diagnosis.