Published online Aug 6, 2019. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i15.2038
Peer-review started: April 4, 2019
First decision: June 21, 2019
Revised: June 21, 2019
Accepted: July 20, 2019
Article in press: July 20, 2019
Published online: August 6, 2019
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most commonly performed surgical procedure used to treat obesity worldwide. Despite satisfactory results in terms of weight loss, over time many patients experience weight regain. There are many factors that contribute to weight regain after RYGB, including the diameter of the gastric-jejunal anastomosis (GJA). One of the most commonly performed endoscopic procedures for weight regain after RYGB is argon plasma coagulation (APC). We report a case of hematemesis after outlet revision with APC. We highlight several treatment modalities that can be used to treat this complication.
A 45-year-old female with a history of weight regain after RYGB was referred for possible endoscopic treatment for weight regain. On endoscopic evaluation, the diameter of the GJA was 22 mm. Due to the dilated GJA, treatment with APC was performed. Several months later she reported a return of poor satiety and an increased appetite. A repeat endoscopy was then performed. The GJA was approximately 15 mm and was incompetent. APC was performed. One day post procedure she had four episodes of hematemesis. An endoscopy was performed and a large ulcer with a visible arterial vessel was visualized at the GJA. Coagulation was attempted using a Coagrasper and after initial contact with the vessel, the vessel started oozing. Due to fibrosis and the depth of ulceration in the area, clips and repeat APC could not be used. Therefore, an attempt to inject epinephrine injection was made. However, persistent oozing was noted. As a result, hemostatic powder was applied to the region of the bleeding vessel. Subsequently, no more bleeding was observed. On follow-up, the patient remained hemodynamically stable and a second look endoscopy was not performed. The patient was discharged three days later.
APC revision of the GJA is known to be a relatively safe and effective strategy to manage weight regain post RYGB. Anastomotic site bleeding is an infrequent and potentially life-threatening complication associated with this therapy. Endoscopic management is the first line therapy used to achieve hemostasis in these cases.
Core tip: We report a case of a patient with weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding after recent outlet revision with argon plasma coagulation. We highlight several treatment modalities, including mechanical, thermal, and topical endoscopic therapies that can be used to treat this complication.