Peter R Loughenbury, Lyeanda Berry, Ben T Brooke, Abhay S Rao, Robert A Dunsmuir, Peter A Millner, Department of Neurosciences, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds LS1 3EX, United Kingdom
Author contributions: Loughenbury PR was involved in study design, data collection, data analysis and wrote the manuscript; Berry L was involved in study design, data collection and review of the manuscript; Brooke BT was involved in data collection and analysis; Rao AS, Dunsmuir RA and Millner PA were involved in study design, data analysis and preparation of the manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: This study was reviewed and approved by the Leeds Teaching Hospitals Institutional Review Board.
Informed consent statement: All study participants, or their legal guardian, provided informed consent prior to study enrolment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest regarding publication of this article.
Data sharing statement: Technical appendix, statistical code, and dataset available from the corresponding author at firstname.lastname@example.org. Consent for data sharing was not obtained but the presented data are anonymized and risk of identification is low.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Peter R Loughenbury, MSc FRCS (Tr and Orth), National Spine Fellow, Department of Neurosciences, Leeds General Infirmary, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, United Kingdom. email@example.com
Received: June 11, 2016
Peer-review started: June 17, 2016
First decision: July 29, 2016
Revised: August 9, 2016
Accepted: October 1, 2016
Article in press: October 3, 2016
Published online: December 18, 2016