Published online Sep 15, 2023. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v14.i9.1393
Peer-review started: May 6, 2023
First decision: May 19, 2023
Revised: May 24, 2023
Accepted: August 4, 2023
Article in press: August 4, 2023
Published online: September 15, 2023
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is related to obesity in pregnant women, older age in pregnant women, excessive nutrition during pregnancy, lack of exercise, genetic history of familial type 2 diabetes, excessive sugar consumption and other factors. GDM often causes obstetric complications, which seriously threaten the life and health of pregnant women and newborns. Blood sugar control measures have a considerable impact on pregnancy outcome and newborn status in patients with GDM.
The long-term abnormal glucose metabolism in GDM pregnant women affects the immune function of newborns, and it is unclear whether poor glucose control in GDM pregnant women increases the risk of neonatal infectious diseases.
The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between GDM pregnant women and neonatal complications, and to analyze the impact of blood glucose control on the risk of neonatal infectious diseases.
The clinical data of 236 pregnant women with GDM and 240 healthy pregnant women and newborns were retrospectively analyzed to compare early neonatal complications in the two groups of pregnant women. The 236 pregnant women with GDM were divided into two groups based on whether their blood sugar control reached the standard. The baseline data, neonatal immune function, infection related indicators, and neonatal infection rate in the two groups of pregnant women with GDM were compared.
The incidence of neonatal complications in GDM pregnant women was significantly higher than that in normal pregnant women. Compared with GDM pregnant women who achieved glycemic control, the proportion of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+T cells in peripheral blood and the ratio of CD4/CD8 cells in newborns from mothers who did not achieve glycemic control significantly decreased, while the white blood cell count, serum procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein levels significantly increased, and the neonatal infection rate significantly increased.
The risk of neonatal complications is increased in pregnant women with GDM, and poor glycemic control leads to impairment of the fetal immune system and ultimately increases the risk of neonatal infections.
The effect of blood glucose control is related to pregnancy outcome and neonatal prognosis.