Published online Feb 15, 2015. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v6.i1.151
Peer-review started: August 29, 2014
First decision: September 30, 2014
Revised: October 9, 2014
Accepted: December 16, 2014
Article in press: December 17, 2014
Published online: February 15, 2015
Type 2 diabetes is an emerging health challenge all over the world as a result of urbanization, high prevalence of obesity, sedentary lifestyle and other stress related factors compounded with the genetic prevalence. The health consequences and economic burden of the obesity and related diabetes mellitus epidemic are enormous. Different signaling molecules secreted by adipocytes have been implicated in the development of obesity and associated insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Human adiponectin, a 244-amino acid collagen-like protein is solely secreted by adipocytes and acts as a hormone with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing properties. Adiponectin secretion, in contrast to secretion of other adipokines, is paradoxically decreased in obesity which may be attributable to inhibition of adiponectin gene transcription. There are several mechanisms through which adiponectin may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes, including suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation in the liver, stimulation of fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and stimulation of insulin secretion. To date, no systematic review has been conducted that evaluate the potential importance of adiponectin metabolism in insulin resistance. In this review attempt has been made to explore the relevance of adiponectin metabolism for the development of diabetes mellitus. This article also identifies this novel target for prospective therapeutic research aiming successful management of diabetes mellitus.
Core tip: Diabetes mellitus and related metabolic disorders like obesity, dyslipidemia are emerging as major global health challenges in recent era. Adiponectin, an adipokine demands profound importance in the field of metabolomics due to its potential role in all these complications. Plasma adiponectin concentration is remarkably lower in subjects with metabolic disorders predicting its significant role as an important biomarker in disease prognosis. We have attempted to enlighten adiponectin function stretching its role as a modulator associating these metabolic obstacles. We believe, this article will surely contribute to the fundamental and clinical research in the field of diabetes and related complications.