Published online Nov 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i41.11854
Peer-review started: February 10, 2015
First decision: April 23, 2015
Revised: June 9, 2015
Accepted: August 31, 2015
Article in press: August 31, 2015
Published online: November 7, 2015
AIM: To make orthotopic colon cancer murine models a more clearly understood subject. The orthotopic tumor models have been found to be more relevant in replicating the human disease process as compared to heterotopic models, many techniques for making orthotopic colorectal murine models have been reported.
METHODS: We evaluated the current literature for various reported orthotopic colon cancer models to understand their techniques, advantages and limitations. An extensive literature review was performed by searching the National Library of Medicine Database (PubMed) using MeSH terms animal model; colon cancer; orthotopic model; murine model. Twenty studies related to colon cancer orthotopic xenograft model were evaluated in detail and discussed here.
RESULTS: The detailed analysis of all relevant reports on orthotopic model showed tumor take rate between 42%-100%. While models using the enema technique and minimally invasive technique have reported development of tumor from mucosa with tumor take rate between 87%-100% with metastasis in 76%-90%.
CONCLUSION: Over the years, the increased understanding of the murine models of human colon cancer has resulted in the development of various models. Each reported model has some limitations. These latest models have opened up new doors for continuing cancer research for not only understanding the colon cancer pathogenesis but also aid in the development of newer chemotherapeutic drugs as they mimic the human disease closely.
Core tip: The murine models of colon cancer represent an important tool for understanding the etiopathogenesis and evaluating management strategies for colorectal cancer, thus representing a resource of immense potential in cancer research. Over the years, the increased understanding of the murine models of human colon cancer have resulted in the development of various models. We evaluated the current literature for various reported orthotopic colon cancer models. Our paper discusses the techniques, results, advantages and limitations of the presently available murine models of colorectal cancer so that a researcher can choose an appropriate colorectal cancer murine model which fits their research goals.