Case Report Open Access
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. May 26, 2024; 12(15): 2586-2596
Published online May 26, 2024. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v12.i15.2586
Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst: A case report and review of literature
Abdul Malik, Qais Ahmad Naseer, Muhammad Asad Iqbal, Sheng-Chun Dang, Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212001, Jiangsu Province, China
Abdul Malik, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Laboratory Science, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu Province, China
Qais Ahmad Naseer, Department of Laboratory Medicine, School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, Jiangsu Province, China
Shi-Ya Han, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110000, Liaoning Province, China
Sheng-Chun Dang, Department of Surgery, Siyang Hospital, Suqian 223700, Jiangsu Province, China
ORCID number: Sheng-Chun Dang (0000-0001-8878-9007).
Co-first authors: Abdul Malik and Qais Ahmad Naseer.
Author contributions: Malik A and Naseer QA contributed equally to this work as co-first authors; Malik A, Naseer QA, Iqbal MA and Han SY were responsible for the data collection and manuscript composition; Dang SC played a pivotal role in critically revising the manuscript for important intellectual content, ensuring the accuracy and integrity of the work. All authors reviewed and endorsed the final manuscript.
Informed consent statement: All study participants or their legal guardian provided informed written consent about personal and medical data collection prior to study enrolment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
CARE Checklist (2016) statement: The authors have read the CARE Checklist (2016), and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the CARE Checklist (2016).
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Sheng-Chun Dang, MD, Chief Doctor, Professor, Surgeon, Department of General Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, No. 438 Jiefang Road, Zhenjiang 212001, Jiangsu Province, China.
Received: November 26, 2023
Revised: February 28, 2024
Accepted: April 7, 2024
Published online: May 26, 2024


Bronchogenic cysts are rare developmental anomalies that belong to the category of congenital enterogenous cysts. They arise from lung buds and are present at birth. The embryonic foregut is their origin. Typically, they are located within the chest cavity, particularly in the cavum mediastinale of the thoracic cavity or lodged in the pulmonary parenchyma, and are considered a type of lung bud malformation.


A 49-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital due to the detection of a retroperitoneal mass during a physical examination. Two weeks before admission, the patient underwent a physical examination and routine laboratory tests, which revealed a space-occupying mass in the retroperitoneal region. The patient did not report any symptoms (such as abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, high fever, or chills). The computed tomography (CT) revealed a retroperitoneal space-occupying lesion with minimal enhancement and a CT value of approximately 36 Hounsfield units. The lesion was not delineated from the boundary of the pancreatic body and was closely related to the retroperitoneum locally.


Following a series of tests, an abdominal mass was identified, prompting the implementation of a laparoscopic retroperitoneal mass excision procedure. During the investigation, an 8 cm × 7 cm cystic round-shaped mass with a distinct demarcation was identified in the upper posterior region of the pancreas. Subsequently, full resection of the mass was performed. Postoperative pathological examination reveled a cystic mass characterized by a smooth inner wall. The cystic mass was found to contain a white, viscous liquid within its capsule.

Key Words: Bronchogenic cyst, Retroperitoneal space, Excision, Laparoscopic surgery, Case report

Core Tip: A 49-year-old male with no significant medical or family history was diagnosed with a retroperitoneal mass during a routine physical examination, despite showing no typical symptoms. The absence of common diseases such as hypertension or diabetes in his medical history, with normal physical examination and laboratory results, highlighted the unusual nature of this case. The mass, detected incidentally, underscoreds the importance of routine health checks in identifying potentially serious conditions in asymptomatic patients. This case emphasizes the critical role of comprehensive evaluations and the need for surgical intervention in managing unexpected findings, demonstrating the value of caution in routine medical examinations.


Bronchogenic cysts originate from the foregut and are most commonly situated in the mediastinum, as noted previously[1,2]. However, these cystic anomalies have also been identified in less common locations, including the esophagus, as reported by Altieri et al[1] and near the diaphragm[3,4]. While often presenting without symptoms, these cysts may lead to clinical concerns through infection or by exerting pressure on adjacent anatomical structures, as described previously[2]. To mitigate such issues and avert further complications, surgical removal of the cysts is frequently advocated[2]. While these cysts are generally asymptomatic, they can become infected or exert compressive effects on adjacent tissues[2]. This case study describes a case involving a subdiaphragmatic retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst, with a definitive diagnosis established through histopathological examination of the surgically excised specimen.

Chief complaints

A retroperitoneal mass was identified during a routine physical examination. The mass was detected two weeks prior to his admission, through physical assessment and standard laboratory tests.

History of present illness

A 49-year-old male who was hospitalized following a routine physical examination unexpectedly revealed a retroperitoneal mass despite the absence of symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, or distension.

History of past illness

The patient's medical history was devoid of any conditions, including the absence of other diseases such as hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), heart disease, or tuberculosis (TB).

Personal and family history

The patient reported no family history of any disease or cancerous growth.

Physical examination

During the physical examination, the patient's abdominal area exhibited a flat and soft appearance, without any indications of gastrointestinal problems or peristaltic movements. Moreover, there were no signs of varices in the abdominal wall, tenderness, rebound pain, or muscle guarding. The liver and spleen displayed normal characteristics, and Murphy's sign elicited a negative response. No pain was elicited during percussion in the liver and kidney regions, and no anomalies were detected during digital rectal examination. The vital signs of the patient were recorded as follows: Body temperature of 36.2 ℃, arterial blood pressure of 130/65 mmHg, SpO2 level of 95%, pulse rate of 105 beats per minute, and respiration rate of 19 breaths per minute. In general, the findings of the physical examination were within normal limits.

Laboratory examinations

Laboratory analyses revealed a C-reactive protein concentration of 24.0 mg/L, a white blood cell (WBC) count of 12.4 × 109/L, and a neutrophil proportion of 77.6%. The results of the endocrine assessment conducted to evaluate excessive adrenal secretion revealed no abnormalities, as shown in Table 1. Blood biochemistry results fell within the normal range, and after comprehensive laboratory analyses and a thorough physical examination, there were no evident contraindications for the surgical extraction of the tumor.

Table 1 Results obtained from the preoperative laboratory tests.
Actual parameter
Amount of concentration
Reference values
Leukocyte (WBC), × 109/L6.13.5-9.5
Neutrophils, × 109/L2.61.8-6.3
Lymphocytes, × 109/L2.61.1-3.2
Monocytes, × 109/L0.70.1-0.6
Eosinophils, × 109/L0.120.02-0.52
Basophil, × 109/L0.070-0.06
CA19-9, U/mL3.3< 37.0
CEA, ng/mL2.3< 5.0
AFP, ng/mL1.25< 8.78
CA125, U/mL6.1< 35

Table 1 presents the results of a series of presurgery laboratory tests conducted on the patient. It provides the actual values of various measured parameters, their corresponding normal reference values, and the units of measurement. The first parameter in the table is the leukocyte or WBC count, which measures the total WBCs in the bloodstream. The patient's WBC count was determined to be 6.1 × 109/L, and this value falls within the typical reference range of 3.5-9.5 × 109/L. Additionally, the table includes various types of WBCs, such as neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. The patient's neutrophil count was slightly below the standard range, while the lymphocyte count was within the normal reference range. The counts of the other types of WBCs all fell within their respective normal ranges. Additionally, the table reports the values of four tumor markers: Carbohydrate antigen (CA)19-9, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and CA125. Tumor markers are substances produced either by cancer cells or by normal cells in response to cancer. They serve the purpose of detecting cancer, monitoring its progression, and evaluating treatment efficacy. In this particular case, all four tumor markers were within their normal reference ranges, signifying the absence of evidence for cancer.

Imaging examinations

Further diagnostic evaluations were undertaken through noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scans to characterize the retroperitoneal space-occupying lesion. Imaging revealed that the lesion demonstrated characteristics suggestive of limited enhancement, an observation attributable to the imaging technique employed. The cyst content was noted to have a uniform density, with CT values ranging between 17 and 36 Hounsfield units, which are indicative of the lesion composition. A notable finding was the increased thickness of the cyst wall, a feature that may suggest underlying contamination or inflammation. Figure 1 shows the anatomical location of an oval cystic lesion situated at the posterior lower aspect of the left lateral lobe of the liver, within the retroperitoneal space, adjacent to the right side of the spine, and to the left of the inferior vena cava. However, it is important to clarify that the figure predominantly shows a large cystic mass accompanied by scattered calcifications within the abdominal-pelvic cavity, without distinct demarcation of the specific lesion across the mentioned anatomical landmarks.

Figure 1
Figure 1 Abdominal noncontrast computed tomography scan depicting a sizable cystic formation. The scan also revealed scattered calcifications throughout the abdominal and pelvic regions.
Further diagnostic work-up

Upon identifying an unexpected retroperitoneal mass during a standard physical examination, the 49-year-old male was subjected to a noncontrast CT scan, which delineated a lesion with limited enhancement and a uniform density, alongside an increased cyst wall thickness, suggesting possible underlying issues. The decision for surgical intervention was made, leading to the laparoscopic resection of the mass. Intraoperatively, the lesion, located on the dorsal side of the upper pole of the left kidney, was noted for its soft, gray-yellow appearance with a smooth surface. The tumor was characterized as soft and gray-yellow and had a smooth surface, and it was successfully completely excised. Upon opening the mass, a thick, jelly like substance was found within, and the thickness of the capsule wall measured approximately 0.2 cm, as shown in Figure 2A. The resected specimen, measuring 8.8 cm × 7.2 cm × 2.6 cm, underwent histopathological examination, which confirmed the diagnosis of a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst (Figure 2B). This examination revealed a cystic mass with a smooth inner wall, containing white viscous fluid, and a capsule wall lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium, inclusive of glands, cartilage, and smooth muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis was not detailed in the initial text but would typically be considered for further characterization of the tissue, especially in distinguishing the cyst's benign nature from potential malignancies, by assessing specific markers relevant to bronchogenic cysts.

Figure 2
Figure 2 Cystic-solid tumor. A: Relationship of cystic lesions with surrounding structures and their maximum diameter; B: Complete surgical removal of the cystic-solid tumor, measuring 8.8 cm in length, 7.2 cm in width, and 2.6 cm in depth.

Considering the patient's clinical presentation and subsequent investigative findings, the final diagnosis was determined to be a retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst.


The patient was treated through laparoscopic resection of the retroperitoneal lesion under general anesthesia, successfully excising the cystic lesion. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, leading to discharge five days after the procedure without any complications.


The surgical procedure was carried out successfully, and the patient was safely transferred to the hospital ward without any postoperative complaints. Subsequent laboratory results indicated a reduction in C-reactive protein levels and WBC count, with a recorded value of 6.1-9 mg/L, while the neutrophil percentage remained at 77.6%. The patient's condition remained stable, characterized by normal vital signs, satisfactory overall well-being, restful sleep, and a positive mental state. Examination of the abdomen did not reveal any tenderness, and bowel sounds were within the expected range. After a postoperative recovery period of five days, the patient exhibited excellent progress without any complications, which ultimately led to their discharge from the hospital.


Bronchogenic cysts are a type of congenital developmental anomaly that typically occurs in the mediastinum but can also occur in other areas, such as the abdominal cavity, skin, and diaphragm. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are frequently observed in the left adrenal region and frequently exhibit an absence of symptoms, hence contributing to the potential for misdiagnosis[5]. It is crucial to distinguish these cysts from other conditions, such as adrenal adenomas, renal cysts, and cystic teratomas. As a consequence of the initial findings, the patient was referred to the surgical department for further evaluation and medical intervention. Throughout the illness, the patient did not manifest any distressing symptoms, such as abdominal pain, abdominal distension, diarrhea, hematuria, urinary pain, frequent urination, cold sensitivity, fever, night sweats, cough, or hemoptysis. Both urinary and bowel functions were reported to be normal, and no significant recent weight loss was documented. Furthermore, the patient had no previous medical history of conditions such as HTN, DM, heart disease, or TB. This case report highlights the discovery of a retroperitoneal space-occupying lesion in a patient who exhibited no accompanying symptoms. Imaging findings suggested the presence of additional cystic lesions within the retroperitoneal region, necessitating further inquiries to establish an accurate diagnosis and develop a suitable course of treatment for this individual.

There were no indications of varices, tenderness, rebound pain, or muscle guarding. Both the liver and spleen appeared normal. Percussion in the liver and kidney areas did not elicit any pain, and digital rectal examination revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the physical examination findings were within normal parameters.

Laboratory tests showed a C-reactive protein level of 24.0 mg/L, a WBC count of 12.4 × 109/L, and a neutrophil percentage of 77.6%. Endocrine evaluation for excessive adrenal secretion revealed no abnormalities (Table 1). A CT scan revealed a retroperitoneal mass without significant enhancement. While the diagnosis confirmed the presence of an abdominal mass, further pathological assessment was needed for precise characterization. Blood biochemistry results were normal. After thorough laboratory analyses and physical examination, there were no contraindications for surgical tumor removal. Surgery was scheduled following appropriate preoperative assessments.

Bronchogenic cysts can be categorized into three types based on their location: Intrapulmonary, mediastinal, and ectopic. The mediastinal type is the most prevalent and typically manifests as a clearly defined cystic structure in the posterior mediastinum. Ectopic variants, which can appear in locations such as the neck, brain, and spinal dura, are rare and may occasionally be found in the retroperitoneal area. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are exceedingly rare, with only sixty-two cases reported in the medical literature. Among these cases, approximately thirty were verified as genuine retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts based on anatomical and pathological criteria[6]. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are an uncommon, accounting for only 0.03% of the tumor incidence. These cysts are thought to have their origins in the embryonic foregut and arise from a segment of the abnormally developed trachea and bronchial tree that takes shape in the early stages following the detachment and implantation of the plumule in the abdominal cavity[5,7]. The concept posits a potential correlation between the occurrence of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts on the left side of the body and the separation of the plumule from the left side after anterior bowel transposition. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are a rare clinical discovery, and most of these lesions typically cluster around the left adrenal gland. The peripancreatic area is the second most frequently affected site for these cysts and can occasionally be mistaken for adenomas during preoperative imaging[8,9]. We examined a patient with a congenital malformation in the posterior mediastinum, likely attributed to the abnormal development of the foregut. One of the retroperitoneal cysts initially appeared as a left adrenal cyst and was effectively excised using laparoscopic techniques. The cyst was definitively diagnosed as a bronchogenic cyst through pathological analysis, highlighting the need to consider bronchogenic cysts as a possible diagnosis for retroperitoneal cysts.

Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts generally remain asymptomatic unless complications such as infection or significant enlargement leading to the compression of neighboring organs arise. The usual indications may involve unexplained abdominal swelling and a sense of fullness before lunchtime. In certain instances, when the adrenal glands are compressed, symptoms resembling those associated with pheochromocytoma have been documented. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial for preventing potential complications, as elevated levels of hormones may be released if left untreated[10,11]. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts exhibit a nearly equal distribution between genders, affecting both women and men. Approximately 82% of these cysts are observed to localize on the left side of the abdominal region[12]. Bronchogenic cysts situated in deep anatomical locations, such as the posterior pelvic peritoneum, pose significant challenges in preoperative identification and are commonly subject to misdiagnosis[13]. The patient underwent a laparoscopic resection procedure for the retro-abdominal lesion under general anesthesia. No ascites was detected in the pelvic cavity, and there were no apparent abnormalities in various abdominal organs, including the liver, stomach, lungs, glands, spleen, small intestine, large intestine, and pelvic cavity. During the operation, the tumor was located on the dorsal side of the upper pole of the left kidney, as illustrated in Figure 2A.

Symptoms such as sickness, vomiting, and stomach discomfort may be useful in obtaining a diagnosis through medical assessment if the lesions become substantial enough to compress neighboring organs. While CT and magnetic resonance imaging are valuable diagnostic modalities for retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts, the process of establishing a definitive diagnosis can be complex due to various aspects, including the protein or calcium composition of the cysts, their dimensions, compaction, or the potential occurrence of infection[8,14,15]. The tumor was characterized as soft and gray-yellow and had a smooth surface, and it was successfully completely excised. Upon opening the mass, a thick, jelly like substance was found within, and the thickness of the capsule wall measured approximately 0.2 cm, as shown in Figure 2B.

The retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst was established during the postoperative pathological examination. The mass exhibited a rounded shape, measuring approximately 8 cm × 7 cm, and had a soft consistency with an intact capsule. Microscopic examination of the specimen revealed a cystic mass with a smooth inner wall, containing white viscous fluid. The capsule wall was lined with pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium and included glands, cartilage, and smooth muscle. The pathological diagnosis confirmed tha the mass was as a bronchogenic cyst, as depicted in Figure 3.

Figure 3
Figure 3 Histopathological analysis showing a retroperitoneal mass identified as an ectopic bronchogenic cyst, featuring nodular tissue in shades of gray-white and yellow. The cystic portion contains a light yellow, soft, gelatinous substance, encased by a smooth, encapsulated surface.

Following a successful surgical procedure, the patient was transferred safely to the hospital ward without experiencing any postoperative issues. Subsequent laboratory results showed decreased C-reactive protein levels and WBC counts, with a recorded range of 6.1-9 mg/L, while the neutrophil percentage remained stable at 77.6%. The patient's condition remained stable, with normal vital signs, satisfactory overall well-being, restful sleep, and a positive mental state. Abdominal examination revealed no tenderness, and bowel sounds were normal. After a 5-d postoperative recovery period, the patient made excellent progress without complications, leading to discharge from the hospital. Surgical removal is typically the treatment of choice, and symptoms of this lesion type often improve following surgical intervention. Fifty percent of all retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts are discovered incidentally[8].

During sonogram investigation, retroperitoneal cystic lesions typically present as anechoic lesions with or without echo fragmentation. Computerized axial tomography typically indicates a thin-walled, well-defined lesion with low water density and little enhancement, although these lesions may have high density due to protein content, hemorrhagic content, or sticky mucinous tissue. Fluid level and wall calcification may also beobserved[6]. Retroperitoneal cystic lesions have a wide range of possible causes, including adrenal cysts, pancreatic pseudocysts, teratomas, and cystic lymphangiomas. Bronchogenic cysts are treated surgically and have a very good long-term success rate[2,12].

The use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) seems to exhibit a higher level of effectiveness compared to CT in the identification and characterization of retroperitoneal cystic masses. This is mostly due to its ability to provide a clear depiction of the mass itself, as well as the surrounding structures within the posterior peritoneal region. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration is a diagnostic procedure that can be employed to ascertain the malignancy or benign nature of a lesion. There have been recorded instances of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts with notably increased levels of serum CA19-9, while the underlying cause for this increase remains unclear and requires additional investigation[16]. The use of serum CA19-9 measurement has the potential to provide valuable diagnostic information for the identification of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts[17]. Retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts were first described by Miller et al[18] in 1953 and are considered to be extremely rare. A thorough examination of the PubMed database has shown a total of 88 recorded cases of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts in the global English-language literature from 1991 to 2022. In the context of this study, a comprehensive analysis was conducted on a total of 40 publications, each presenting detailed information on 45 cases involving the laparoscopic extraction of red blood cells. The evaluation encompassed the entirety of the texts as well as the pathological findings associated with these cases. Table 2 provides a concise summary of the papers that are included for reference.

Table 2 A literature review on laparoscopic and robotic surgery for retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts.
Age (yr)
Size (cm)
Chief complaint
Surgical technique
First author
Japan199724FL adrenal gland3AsymptomaticLaparoscopicTokuda N[19]
Japan199849FR adrenal gland3.2 × 2.2AsymptomaticLaparoscopicYamamoto E[23]
Australia200215ML adrenal gland5.5 × 3.5 × 1.2L flank painLaparoscopicMcCrystal DJ[24]
Australia20028FL adrenal gland4 × 3 × 2Abdominal painLaparoscopicMcCrystal DJ[24]
United States200359FL adrenal gland7 × 5AsymptomaticLaparoscopicHedayati N[25]
Japan200341FL adrenal gland9.2L flank painLaparoscopicIshikawa T[26]
Japan200436ML adrenal gland5 × 3AsymptomaticLaparoscopicIshizuka O[27]
United States200775FL adrenal gland5Abdominal painLaparoscopicTerry NE[28]
China200755ML adrenal gland4 × 3AsymptomaticLaparoscopicChu PY[29]
Japan200739ML adrenal gland3.5 × 3FeverLaparoscopicMinei S[30]
United States200840ML adrenal gland6.2AsymptomaticLaparoscopicRoma A[31]
Korea200941FL adrenal gland4.8 × 3.5 × 4.2AsymptomaticLaparoscopicChung JM[12]
United States200967ML upper-quadrant3.9 × 3.7AsymptomaticLaparoscopicObando J[32]
Portland201044ML adrenal gland3AsymptomaticLaparoscopicEl Youssef R[33]
Japan201064FStomach posterior wall3 × 4 × 2AsymptomaticLaparoscopicInaba K[34]
Spain201067MGastro-esophageal junction6Low back painLaparoscopicDíaz Nieto R[35]
United States201223FR adrenal gland4AsymptomaticRoboticAlguraan Z[36]
United States201223FL adrenal gland5.2 × 4Abdominal discomfortLaparoscopicO'Neal PB[37]
Germany201350ML adrenal gland4L flank painLaparoscopicJannasch O[38]
China201350FPancreas posterior wall3L flank painLaparoscopicCai Y[39]
Switzerland201342FL adrenal gland5 × 3.6 × 4Epigastric painLaparoscopicRunge T[40]
Portugal201336FL upper quadrant8Abdominal painLaparoscopicCastro R[41]
China201430FL adrenal gland1.5 × 2 × 2AsymptomaticLaparoscopicDong B[42]
China201451ML adrenal gland4.5HeadacheLaparoscopicCao DH[43]
Japan201427ML adrenal gland5.4 × 3.8AsymptomaticLaparoscopicTerasaka T[44]
China20158ML adrenal gland4AsymptomaticLaparoscopicZhang D[45]
India201534FR hypochondrium10 × 6R flank heavyLaparoscopicTrehan M[46]
China201552ML crus of the diaphragm2.5 × 2.5 × 0.5AsymptomaticLaparoscopicJiang X[47]
Türkiye201525FL adrenal gland4L flank painLaparoscopicBulut G[48]
Korea201557ML adrenal gland4.8 × 2.5AsymptomaticLaparoscopicYoon YR[49]
China201748FL adrenal gland8 × 6 × 5.5Epigastric painLaparoscopicWang M[17]
China201878MInferior of the L renal vein, L side of IVC7AsymptomaticRoboticLiu Q[50]
China201833ML hepatic hilum4.5AsymptomaticRoboticLiu Q[50]
Türkiye201838FL adrenal glandNAL upper abdominal painLaparoscopicBolton JW[51]
India202030ML adrenal gland7 × 5Upper abdominal painLaparoscopicSinha V[52]
China202033MR adrenal gland3.1 × 5.9AsymptomaticLaparoscopicWen Y[53]
China202027ML adrenal gland2.1 × 4.1AsymptomaticLaparoscopicWen Y[53]
China202141FL adrenal gland3.5 × 3Lumbar back discomfortLaparoscopicQingyu J[54]
China202117FL adrenal gland2.9 × 1.7 × 2.8Epigastric painLaparoscopicWu LD[55]
China202153FL adrenal gland3.3 × 2.7 × 3.5Back painLaparoscopicYuan K[22]
New Zealand202139ML adrenal gland3L flank painLaparoscopicCowan S[56]
Japan202216FUnder the L diaphragm3.8Upper abdominal painLaparoscopicTadokoro T[57]
China202227MR adrenal gland3.6 × 3.5 × 3.4AsymptomaticLaparoscopicHu BY[58]
China202218ML adrenal gland7.1 × 3.6 × 7AsymptomaticLaparoscopicHu BY[58]
China20226ML adrenal gland4.5 × 2.8 × 8Abdominal painLaparoscopicHu BY[58]

Tokuda et al[19] reported the first laparoscopic resection of such cysts in 1997, with a focus on cysts up to 3 cm in size. It is worth noting that this particular surgical treatment has been predominantly documented in China, with 17 cases (37.8%). Subsequently, 8 cases were recorded in Japan (17.8%), while 6 cases were reported in the United States (13.3%). The observation of differences based on regional and racial factors is consistent with the findings reported by Liang et al[20]. Comprehensive literature reviews were sequentially conducted by Cetinkurşun et al[21], Liang et al[20], Govaerts et al[6], and Yuan et al[22] in the years 1997, 2005, 2012, and 2021, respectively. It is noteworthy to emphasize that the aforementioned research included a significant cohort of patients who underwent surgical procedures utilizing the open technique. After successful surgical resection and pathological confirmation of the bronchogenic cyst, comprehensive preoperative assessment, which plays a crucial role in guiding the surgical approach. Table 1 presents the results of a series of presurgery laboratory tests conducted on the patient, providing a detailed account of the patient's clinical status prior to the operation. This includes the actual values of various measured parameters, their corresponding normal reference values, and the units of measurement. Specifically, the leukocyte or WBC count, which measures the total WBCs in the bloodstream, was determined to be within the typical reference range, indicating no infection or inflammation. Additionally, the table reports the values of four tumor markers: CA19-9, CEA, AFP, and CA125, all of which are within their normal reference ranges, indication the absence of evidence for cancer. This comprehensive laboratory analysis, alongside a thorough physical examination, underscored the absence of contraindications for surgical extraction of the tumor, facilitating a well-informed decision to proceed with laparoscopic resection. Furthermore, our study was extended to incorporate the latest findings from the preceding 2 years and address any deficiencies that were not covered in previous enquiries. These collaborative endeavors resulted in consistent discoveries concerning the clinical attributes of the illness, including elements such as the age of the patients, initial symptoms, and prevalent anatomical sites of the cysts.


In summary, retroperitoneal bronchogenic cysts, while rare and often asymptomatic, are typically identified incidentally and best managed through surgical removal, with laparoscopic excision being the preferred method. The case discussed illustrates the successful laparoscopic resection of such a cyst, emphasizing the importance of a multidisciplinary approach for optimal diagnosis and management. The challenges in preoperative diagnosis due to the deep anatomical locations of cyst highlight the need for prompt intervention to prevent complications. The current literature supports the effectiveness of laparoscopic surgery, noting a favorable long-term prognosis without recurrence. Future research should focus on enhancing diagnostic techniques and exploring less invasive treatment options, underscoring the necessity of further studies to improve patient care for this condition.


We would like to express our gratitude to our patient and their family for allowing us to publish this case report.


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P-Reviewer: Gokce E, Türkiye; Sultana N, Bangladesh S-Editor: Zheng XM L-Editor: A P-Editor: Li X

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