Published online Sep 6, 2021. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v9.i25.7605
Peer-review started: April 28, 2021
First decision: June 15, 2021
Revised: June 16, 2021
Accepted: July 15, 2021
Article in press: July 15, 2021
Published online: September 6, 2021
Both periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) and severe femoral segmental defects are catastrophic complications of total hip arthroplasty (THA), and both present a significant challenge in revisional surgery. There are limited data available to guide clinical decision making when both occur concurrently.
A 61-year-old woman presented with a 6-mo history of a sinus tract at the site of her original THA incision. Radiological imaging revealed a total hip joint implant with an ipsilateral segmental femoral defect. Based on histological, radiological, laboratory, and clinical features, a diagnosis of concurrent chronic PJI and segmental femoral defect (Type IIIB, Paprosky classification) was made. After multidisciplinary team discussion, three-dimensional (3D)-printed, custom-made antibiotic spacers were created that could be used to mold antibiotic-loaded cement spacer. These were placed following PJI debridement in the first stage of revision surgery. After the PJI was eliminated, a 3D-printed, custom-made, femoral prosthesis was created to repair the considerable femoral defect. After 20-mo follow-up, the patient had excellent functional outcomes with a near-normal range of hip movement. So far, neither evidence of recurrent infection nor loosening of the prosthesis has been observed.
We describe a case of “two-stage, custom-made” total hip revision to treat PJI with a concurrent segmental femoral defect. Use of a personalized, 3D-printed spacer and proximal femoral prosthesis led to satisfactory hip function and no early postoperative complications. Use of a customized implant provides surgeons with an alternative option for patients where no suitable spacer or implant is available. However, the long-term function, longevity, and cost-effectiveness of the use of custom-made prostheses have yet to be fully explored.
Core Tip: This paper reports a pioneering technique where a 3D-printed, custom-made antibiotic spacer and femoral prosthesis were used in revisional surgery for a challenging case of periprosthetic joint infection with a concurrent femoral segmental defect after total hip arthroplasty. A review of other relevant cases from the literature is presented, and the potential challenges and solutions of novel, personalized reconstructive methods are discussed.