Published online Sep 6, 2019. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i17.2597
Peer-review started: April 10, 2019
First decision: May 9, 2019
Revised: July 2, 2019
Accepted: July 20, 2019
Article in press: July 20,2019
Published online: September 6, 2019
Moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) is a critical form of acute pancreatitis that is related with high morbidity and mortality. Severe Clostridium difficile infection (sCDI) is a serious and rare nosocomial diarrheal complication, especially in MSAP patients. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment for refractory and recurrent CDI (rCDI). However, knowledge regarding the initial use of FMT in patients suffering from sCDI is limited.
Here, we report an MSAP patient complicated with sCDI who was treated by FMT as a first-line therapy. The patient was a 51-year-old man who suffered from diarrhea in his course of acute pancreatitis. An enzyme immunoassay was performed to detect toxins, and the result was positive for toxin-producing C. difficile and toxin B and negative for C. difficile ribotype 027. The colonoscopy revealed pseudomembranous colitis. Due to these findings, sCDI was our primary consideration. Because the patient provided informed consent for FMT treatment, we initially treated the patient by FMT rather than metronidazole. Diarrhea resolved within 5 d after FMT. The patient remained asymptomatic, and the follow-up colonoscopy performed 40 d after discharge showed a complete recovery. Our case is the first reported in China.
This case explores the possibilities of initially using FMT to treat severe CDI. Moreover, FMT may become a critical component of the treatment for severe CDI in MSAP patients.
Core tip: A rare complication of acute pancreatitis is Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Certain antibiotics are used as the treatment of choice for CDI. However, in our case, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was considered the best treatment and achieved good results. This case demonstrates that FMT can be considered a first-line treatment for primary severe CDI in moderately severe acute pancreatitis patients.