Clinical Trials Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. Aug 16, 2018; 6(8): 207-213
Published online Aug 16, 2018. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v6.i8.207
Combined exercise improves gastrointestinal motility in psychiatric in patients
Bong Kil Song, Yeon Soo Kim, Hee Soo Kim, Jung-Woo Oh, On Lee, Joon-Sik Kim
Bong Kil Song, Yeon Soo Kim, Hee Soo Kim, Jung-Woo Oh, On Lee, Joon-Sik Kim, Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742, South Korea
Hee Soo Kim, MD, Namyangju Hanyang General Hospital, Namyangju 12048, South Korea
Author contributions: Song BK designed the research study; Kim HS performed the study procedures and collected the data; Lee O, Oh JW and Kim JS analyzed the data; Kim YS interpreted the findings and drafted the manuscript; all authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: This work was performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki (2000) of the World Medical Association. Full approval for the study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board of Seoul National University (IRB No: 1203/001-002). All patients provided written informed consent.
Clinical trial registration: This study is registered at The registration identification number is KCT0002818.
Informed consent statement: All patients provided written informed consent.
Conflict-of-interest statement: No conflicts-of-interest, financial or otherwise, are declared by the author(s).
CONSORT 2010 statement: The authors have read the CONSORT 2010 Statement, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the CONSORT 2010 Statement.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Yeon Soo Kim, MD, PhD, Academic Research, Doctor, Health and Exercise Science Laboratory, Institute of Sports Science, Seoul National University, 71-1 408, Kwanak-ro 1, Kwanakgu, Seoul 151-742, South Korea.
Telephone: +82-2-8807794 Fax: +82-0303-03030794
Received: March 27, 2018
Peer-review started: March 29, 2018
First decision: April 13, 2018
Revised: April 27, 2018
Accepted: June 26, 2018
Article in press: June 27, 2018
Published online: August 16, 2018

To examine the effect of combined exercise on colonic transit time (CTT) in admitted psychiatric patients.


Over a 6-mo period, consecutive in patients with mental illness were recruited from the Somang Hospital Psychiatry Unit. A combined exercise program that included 60 min per day of exercise 3 d per week for 12 wk was performed. Physical fitness and CTT of the patients were measured twice before and twice after the exercise program. CTT was measured using a multiple marker technique with a radio-opaque marker. Changes in the exercising patients’ CTT and weight-, cardiovascular- and fitness-related parameters were statistically assessed.


After the 12-wk combined exercise intervention, decreased intestinal transit time was observed in all CTTs of the exercise group, including the right CTT (exercise: 15.6 ± 15.2 vs 9.2 ± 11.9, control: 13.1 ± 10.4 vs 10.9 ± 18.7), left CTT (exercise: 19.7 ± 23.5 vs 10.4 ± 13.2, control: 19.2 ± 19.0 vs 16.9 ± 19.8), recto-sigmoid CTT (exercise: 14.3 ± 16.7 vs 6.7 ± 7.9, control: 15.0 ± 14.4 vs 19.3 ± 30.3), and total colonic transit time (TCTT) (exercise: 50.2 ± 38.1 vs 27.1 ± 28.0, control: 47.4 ± 34.6 vs 47.3 ± 47.3). After the 12-wk combined exercise period, TCTT was significantly shortened in the exercise group compared with that in the control group. In addition to eating habits, water intake, and fiber intake, the increased physical activity level as a result of the 12-wk combined exercise program reduced the CTT.


The CTT of the psychiatric patients was reduced due to increased physical activity via a 12-wk combined exercise program.

Keywords: Combined exercise, Constipation, Colonic transit time, Radio-opaque marker, Psychiatry unit patient

Core tip: Maintaining physical activity routine for in patients of closed wards in mental health facilities remains a major challenge. Long-term inactivity is a risk factor for decreased gastrointestinal motility, which leads to constipation, weight gain, and related metabolic and cardiovascular disorders and can affect drug absorption. In this study, implementation of a 12-wk combined exercise program was shown to be beneficial in reducing colonic transit time and increasing leg strength.