Randomized Controlled Trial
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. May 26, 2024; 12(15): 2578-2585
Published online May 26, 2024. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v12.i15.2578
Evaluation of the effects of health education interventions for hypertensive patients based on the health belief model
Hong-Mei Wang, Ying Chen, Yan-Hua Shen, Xiao-Mei Wang
Hong-Mei Wang, Yan-Hua Shen, Xiao-Mei Wang, Department of Emergency, Lishui Second People's Hospital, Lishui 323000, Zhejiang Province, China
Ying Chen, Department of Pancreatic and Biliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110002, Liaoning Province, China
Co-first authors: Hong-Mei Wang and Ying Chen.
Author contributions: Wang HM, Wang XM and Chen Y conceptualized the research, contributed to data collection, drafted the initial manuscript, and contributed to formal analysis; Wang HM provided guidance for this study, and together with Sheng YH, they contributed to methodology and visualization; Wang HM and Chen Y validated this study. All authors participated in this study and jointly reviewed and edited the manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: This study was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Committee of the Second People's Hospital of Lishui City.
Clinical trial registration statement: This study is registered at: https://www.researchregistry.com. The registration identification number is Researchregistry9847.
Informed consent statement: All study participants, or their legal guardian, provided informed written consent prior to study enrollment.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
CONSORT 2010 statement: The authors have read the CONSORT 2010 statement, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the CONSORT 2010 statement.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Hong-Mei Wang, Nurse, Department of Emergency, Lishui Second People's Hospital, No. 69 Beihuan Road, Liandu District, Lishui 323000, Zhejiang Province, China. vmxa671@163.com
Received: February 19, 2024
Revised: March 11, 2024
Accepted: April 8, 2024
Published online: May 26, 2024
Processing time: 85 Days and 1 Hours

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and stroke, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. Health education interventions based on the health belief model (HBM) can improve the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of patients with hypertension and help them control their blood pressure.


To evaluate the effects of health education interventions based on the HBM in patients with hypertension in China.


Between 2021 and 2023, 140 patients with hypertension were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received health education based on the HBM, including lectures, brochures, videos, and counseling sessions, whereas the control group received routine care. Outcomes were measured at baseline, three months, and six months after the intervention and included blood pressure, medication adherence, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits, barriers, susceptibility, and severity.


The intervention group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure [mean difference (MD): -8.2 mmHg, P < 0.001] and diastolic blood pressure (MD: -5.1 mmHg, P = 0.002) compared to the control group at six months. The intervention group also had higher medication adherence (MD: 1.8, P < 0.001), self-efficacy (MD: 12.4, P < 0.001), perceived benefits (MD: 3.2, P < 0.001), lower perceived barriers (MD: -2.6, P = 0.001), higher perceived susceptibility (MD: 2.8, P = 0.002), and higher perceived severity (MD: 3.1, P < 0.001) than the control group at six months.


Health education interventions based on the HBM effectively improve blood pressure control and health beliefs in patients with hypertension and should be implemented in clinical practice and community settings.

Keywords: Hypertension, Health education, Health belief model, Blood pressure control, Randomized controlled trial

Core Tip: Health education interventions based on the health belief model (HBM) significantly improve blood pressure control and health beliefs in patients with hypertension. This study, conducted in China from 2021 to 2023, demonstrated that patients who received HBM-based education had lower blood pressure, better medication adherence, and improved self-efficacy than those who received routine care. Implementing such interventions in clinical and community settings can effectively help patients with hypertension manage their condition and enhance their overall health outcomes.