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World J Virol. Aug 12, 2013; 2(3): 110-122
Published online Aug 12, 2013. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v2.i3.110
Nuclear domain 10 of the viral aspect
Yisel A Rivera-Molina, Francisco Puerta Martínez, Qiyi Tang
Yisel A Rivera-Molina, Francisco Puerta Martínez, Qiyi Tang, Department of Microbiology/RCMI Program, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ponce, PR 00732-7004, United States
Author contributions: Rivera-Molina YA, Martínez FP and Tang Q contributed to this review.
Supported by A Pilot Grant from the National Center for Research Resources (G12 RR003050); and the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (8G12MD007579-27), both of the National Institutes of Health (To Tang Q), an American Cancer Society Grant (117448-RSG-09-289-01-MPC) (To Tang Q), and NIH/NCRR U54RR022762 (To Tang Q)
Correspondence to: Qiyi Tang, MD, PhD, Department of Microbiology/RCMI Program, Ponce School of Medicine and Health Sciences, PO Box 7004, Ponce, PR 00732, United States.
Telephone: +1-787- 8402575 Fax: +1-787- 8415159
Received: January 27, 2013
Revised: May 31, 2013
Accepted: May 31, 2013
Published online: August 12, 2013

Nuclear domain 10 (ND10) are spherical bodies distributed throughout the nucleoplasm and measuring around 0.2-1.0 μm. First observed under an electron microscope, they were originally described as dense bodies found in the nucleus. They are known by a number of other names, including Promyelocytic Leukemia bodies (PML bodies), Kremer bodies, and PML oncogenic domains. ND10 are frequently associated with Cajal bodies and cleavage bodies. It has been suggested that they play a role in regulating gene transcription. ND10 were originally characterized using human autoantisera, which recognizes Speckled Protein of 100 kDa, from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. At the immunohistochemical level, ND10 appear as nuclear punctate structures, with 10 indicating the approximate number of dots per nucleus observed. ND10 do not colocalize with kinetochores, centromeres, sites of mRNA processing, or chromosomes. Resistance of ND10 antigens to nuclease digestion and salt extraction suggest that ND10 are associated with the nuclear matrix. They are often identified by immunofluorescent assay using specific antibodies against PML, Death domain-associated protein, nuclear dot protein (NDP55), and so on. The role of ND10 has long been the subject of investigation, with the specific connection of ND10 and viral infection having been a particular focus for almost 20 years. This review summarizes the relationship of ND10 and viral infection. Some future study directions are also discussed.

Keywords: Nuclear domain 10, Promyelocytic Leukemia, Speckled protein of 100 kDa, Death domain-associated protein, Virus, Viral replication

Core tip: We, for the first time, discussed the function of nuclear domain 10 (ND10) as a nuclear structure. Although the ND10 components, especially Promyelocytic Leukemia bodies, Speckled Protein of 100 kDa and death domain-associated protein, have been widely investigated for their roles in viral gene expression and viral replication, individual virus interacts with ND10 differentially as we summarized up in this review. This review is expected to guide readers especially virologists and cell biologists to understanding the interaction of ND10 with viruses.