Retrospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Psychiatr. Apr 19, 2020; 10(4): 59-70
Published online Apr 19, 2020. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v10.i4.59
Risk factors for depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Hui-Ming Yao, Ren-Sen Xiao, Ping-Liang Cao, Xiao-Lei Wang, Wei Zuo, Wei Zhang
Hui-Ming Yao, Ren-Sen Xiao, Wei Zuo, Wei Zhang, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province, China
Ping-Liang Cao, Xiao-Lei Wang, Second Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Jiangxi Provincial People's Hospital Affiliated to Nanchang University, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province, China
Author contributions: All authors helped to perform the research; Yao HM manuscript writing, performing procedures and data analysis; Xiao RS manuscript writing, drafting conception and design, performing experiments, and data analysis; Cao PL, Wang XL and Zuo W contributed to writing the manuscript; Zhang W contributed to writing the manuscript, drafting conception and design.
Supported by Horizontal Projects of National Key Research and Development Plan Projects, No. 1210053010.
Institutional review board statement: Ethical permission for this study was waived by the Ethics Committee of The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University.
Informed consent statement: Patients were not required to give informed consent to the study as the analysis used clinical data that were obtained after each patient agreed to treatment by written consent.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All authors declare no conflicts-of-interest related to this article.
Data sharing statement: No additional data are available.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Wei Zhang, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, No. 17 Yongwaizheng Street, Donghu District, Nanchang 330006, Jiangxi Province, China. weizhang1963@163.com
Received: November 4, 2019
Peer-review started: November 4, 2019
First decision: December 26, 2019
Revised: February 26, 2020
Accepted: March 12, 2020
Article in press: March 12, 2020
Published online: April 19, 2020
Abstract
BACKGROUND

The prevalence of depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ranges from 10% to 42%, but the diagnosis of depression in patients with COPD is often unrecognized and untreated. Unrecognized depression has major implications for compliance with medical treatment, prolonged lengths of stay, increased frequency of hospital admissions, and increased consultations with primary care physicians. Many studies have attempted to identify risk factors for progression, prognosis and response to therapy in patients with depression. However, few studies have examined the risk factors for depression in patients with COPD, and some results remain controversial.

AIM

To identify the potential risk factors to define patients with COPD who are at “high risk” of depression.

METHODS

The clinical data of 293 patients with COPD were reviewed from January 2017 to December 2018. The correlations between demographics, clinical characteristics and depression were analyzed. The risk factors for depression in patients with COPD were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The cutoff value, sensitivity and specificity of the independent correlation factors were calculated with a receiver operating characteristic curve.

RESULTS

Of the 293 patients included, 65 (22.18%) individuals were identified to have depression. Significant differences were detected between patients with and without depression in terms of body mass index (BMI), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and COPD assessment test (CAT) score (all P < 0.05). Low BMI, low FEV1, and high CAT were independent risk factors for depression in patients with COPD and the cutoff values of BMI, FEV1, and CAT scores were 21.373 kg/m2, 0.855 L and 12.5, respectively.

CONCLUSION

Low BMI, low FEV1, and high CAT score were identified as independent risk factors for depression in patients with COPD.

Keywords: Depression, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Body mass index, Forced expiratory volume in 1 second, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test scores, Risk factors

Core tip: The prevalence of depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ranges from 10% to 42%. However, the risk factors for depression in patients with COPD have been examined in few studies, and some results remain controversial. The purpose of the current study is to investigate the correlation between clinical parameters and the symptoms of depression, and to identify independent risk factors to define patients with COPD who are at “high risk” of depression. Low body mass index, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s and high chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test score were identified as independent risk factors for depression in patients with COPD.