Published online Apr 18, 2019. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v10.i4.192
Peer-review started: January 4, 2019
First decision: January 29, 2019
Revised: February 15, 2019
Accepted: March 16, 2019
Article in press: March 16, 2019
Published online: April 18, 2019
Growing pains are the most common cause of musculoskeletal pain in early childhood. The etiopathogenesis of the disease was widely investigated but it is still unknown.
Numerous studies tried to explain the major actors in growing pains etiology but there is a lack of summarize of the evidence.
Analyze the available scientific literature to provide an update on the latest evidence on the etiology
Two databases (Pubmed and Science Direct) were systematically searched for relevant article by two independent reviewer. Every step of the review was done according to PRISMA guidelines. Due to article heterogeneity and the topic after data analysis, a descriptive analysis was performed.
N = 32 articles were included in this systematic review after applying our inclusions and exclusion criteria. Available evidence on growing pains etiology is still inconclusive. Several hypotheses have been researched but none of them was considered decisive.
After our systematic review we conclude that growing pains etiology rely on different factors, that individually or in association, might be responsible for the onset of the syndrome.
Further clinical and preclinical studies are strongly encouraged to understand better the possible causes and the etiopathogenetic mechanisms underlying growing pains. Interesting perspective from studies on vitamin D deficit and supplies and anatomic/mechanical theories were found and should be further investigated.