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World J Orthop. Oct 18, 2013; 4(4): 241-247
Published online Oct 18, 2013. doi: 10.5312/wjo.v4.i4.241
Methods of predicting vertebral body fractures of the lumbar spine
Gurudattsingh B Sisodia
Gurudattsingh B Sisodia, Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
Gurudattsingh B Sisodia, Yorkshire and Humber Deanery, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom
Author contributions: Sisodia GB was involved in the conception of this review article, the literature review process and in preparing the manuscript.
Correspondence to: Gurudattsingh B Sisodia, MBChB, BSc, MSc, MRCS, Yorkshire and Humber Deanery, University of Leeds, Willow Terrace, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom. gurusisodia@doctors.org.uk
Telephone: +44-113-3431557 Fax: +44-113-3431530
Received: June 5, 2013
Revised: July 28, 2013
Accepted: August 17, 2013
Published online: October 18, 2013
Abstract

Lumbar vertebral body (VB) fractures are increasingly common in an ageing population that is at greater risk of osteoporosis and metastasis. This review aims to identify different models, as alternatives to bone mineral density (BMD), which may be applied in order to predict VB failure load and fracture risk. The most representative models are those that take account of normal spinal kinetics and assess the contribution of the cortical shell to vertebral strength. Overall, predictive models for VB fracture risk should encompass a range of important parameters including BMD, geometric measures and patient-specific factors. As interventions like vertebroplasty increase in popularity for VB fracture treatment and prevention, such models are likely to play a significant role in the clinical decision-making process. More biomechanical research is required, however, to reduce the risks of post-operative adjacent VB fractures.

Keywords: Lumbar spine, Vertebral body, Fracture, Prediction, Model, Bone mineral density, Osteoporosis

Core tip: Lumbar vertebral body (VB) fractures are increasingly common in an ageing population that is at greater risk of osteoporosis and metastasis. This review aims to identify different models, as alternatives to bone mineral density (BMD), which may be applied in order to predict VB failure load and fracture risk. The most representative models are those that take account of normal spinal kinetics and assess the contribution of the cortical shell to vertebral strength. Overall, predictive models for VB fracture risk should encompass a range of important parameters including BMD, geometric measures and patient-specific factors.