Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Diabetes. Sep 15, 2023; 14(9): 1334-1340
Published online Sep 15, 2023. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v14.i9.1334
Table 1 Direct gene targets of microRNA-155 relevant to type 2 diabetes mellitus
Gene symbol
Full gene name
AGTR1Angiotensin II type 1 receptor geneRepressed translation downregulates gene expression mediating endogenous AT1R antagonism[9,10,21]. Human in-vitro and in-vivo studies
ARG2Arginase-2Repressed translation prevents L-arginine depletion, supports dendritic cell maturation, and negates lung pathologies[22,23]. Human and mouse in-vitro and in-vivo studies
BACH1BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1Translational repression of BACH1 leads to potent anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, antioxidant programs through Heme Oxygenase-1[12]. Review of human in-vitro and in-vivo studies
C/EBPβCCAAT/enhancer-binding protein βRepression downregulates Pyruvate Kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression and negatively regulates Pyruvate kinase complex (PDC) activity, thereby improving glucose utilization [16]. Mouse in-vitro and human in-vivo studies
ETS-1E26 Transformation-specific Sequence-1Translational repression averts Ang II effects involving gene regulation of vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, and inflammation[9,10,24]. Review of human in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Mouse in-vitro and in-vivo studies
HDAC4Histone deacetylase 4Its repression increases GLUT4 and enhances glucose uptake in insulin-sensitive tissues, i.e., skeletal muscle[16]. Mouse in-vitro and human in-vivo studies
CACNA1C (Cav1.2)L-type calcium channel subunit, LTCCAs a subunit of the L-type calcium channel, this pro-constrictive gene contributes to influx of calcium in vascular smooth muscle cells and reactive oxygen species production, thereby mediating the important components of vascular aging: Vasoconstriction and vascular oxidative stress[21]. Human in-vitro and in-vivo studies
SOCS1Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1Repression prevents the degradation of IRS-1 (Insulin Receptor Substrate-1) protein that mediates the effect of insulin in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue. Supports the JAK2/Y343/STAT5 pathway through which the protective effects of EPO against ischemic injury are mediated[16,25]. Human in-vivo study. Mouse in-vitro and in-vivo study