Impact of diabetes mellitus on risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: Evidence on health outcomes and antidiabetic treatment in United States adults
Longjian Liu, Jinggaofu Shi, Arshpreet Kaur Mallhi, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States
Barbara Simon, Division of Endocrinology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, United States
Howard J Eisen, Division of Cardiology, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19102, United States
Author contributions: All the authors contributed to this manuscript.
Supported by A grant from the Drexel-AmeriHealth Faculty Initiatives, No. 282573.
Institutional review board statement: The NHIS, NHIS-Mortality Linked File and MEPS have been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the United States CDC NCHS, and are publicly available through the NCHS (http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis.htm).
Informed consent statement: The current report used data from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) of the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC). All informed consents were conducted by the NCHS while the study was carried. No further informed consent forms were requested by using the dataset (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/).
Conflict-of-interest statement: We have no conflict of interest to report.
Data sharing statement: Data used in the present study were public use data files provided by the United States CDC NCHS. Those who are interested may apply for and download from NCHS website.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Longjian Liu, MD, PhD, MSc, FAHA, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, 3215 Market ST, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. email@example.com
Telephone: +1-267-3596049 Fax: +1-267-3596201
Received: March 28, 2016
Peer-review started: March 28, 2016
First decision: May 26, 2016
Revised: August 1, 2016
Accepted: August 17, 2016
Article in press: August 18, 2016
Published online: October 15, 2016