Basic Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Diabetes. Sep 15, 2023; 14(9): 1349-1368
Published online Sep 15, 2023. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v14.i9.1349
Genipin relieves diabetic retinopathy by down-regulation of advanced glycation end products via the mitochondrial metabolism related signaling pathway
Ke-Xin Sun, Yan-Yi Chen, Zhen Li, Shi-Jie Zheng, Wen-Juan Wan, Yan Ji, Ke Hu
Ke-Xin Sun, Yan-Yi Chen, Shi-Jie Zheng, Wen-Juan Wan, Yan Ji, Ke Hu, Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China
Zhen Li, Department of Ophthalmology, The People’s Hospital of Leshan, Leshan 400000, Sichuan Province, China
Author contributions: Sun KX and Hu K were involved in design and conduct of the study, and preparation of the manuscript; Sun KX, Chen YY, and Li Z participated in the collection of the data; Zheng SJ, Wan WJ, Ji Y, and Hu K participated in the management of this program; all authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 81870650, No. 81570832, and No. 81900885; Science and Technology Program Chongqing, No. 2018GDRC008 and No. XKTS049.
Institutional animal care and use committee statement: All animal experimental protocols were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Chongqing Medical University (No. 2022-K45).
Conflict-of-interest statement: None of the authors have any financial/conflicting interests to disclose.
Data sharing statement: Technical appendix, statistical code, and dataset available from the corresponding author Professor Ke Hu at
ARRIVE guidelines statement: The authors have read the ARRIVE Guidelines, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the ARRIVE Guidelines.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Ke Hu, Doctor, MD, Chief Doctor, Doctor, Professor, Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No. 1 Youyi Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, China.
Received: March 3, 2023
Peer-review started: March 3, 2023
First decision: April 26, 2023
Revised: May 4, 2023
Accepted: August 7, 2023
Article in press: August 7, 2023
Published online: September 15, 2023
Core Tip

Core Tip: The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been widely validated in pathological changes of diabetic retinopathy (DR). A new vital compound in Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, genipin, can be used to treat DR and decrease AGEs. Genipin ameliorated AGEs-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and inflammatory injury, partially via the CHGA/UCP2/glucose transporter 1 pathway. Control of AGEs by intraocular injection of genipin may represent a strategy to prevent severe retinopathy and vision loss. Here, we confirmed the effectiveness of genipin to treat DR both in vivo and in vitro, and explored its related molecular mechanism.