Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Diabetes. Nov 15, 2022; 13(11): 900-911
Published online Nov 15, 2022. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v13.i11.900
Type 2 diabetes and bone fragility in children and adults
Maria Felicia Faienza, Paola Pontrelli, Giacomina Brunetti
Maria Felicia Faienza, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Pediatric Unit, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari 70124, Italy
Paola Pontrelli, Division of Nephrology, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari 70124, Italy
Giacomina Brunetti, Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari 70125, Italy
Author contributions: Faienza MF wrote the clinical implications; Pontrelli P explored the bone-kidney axis; Brunetti G performed the majority of the writing and coordinated the writing of the paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report having no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Giacomina Brunetti, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biosciences, Biotechnologies and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Via Orabona, 4, Bari 70125, Italy.
Received: May 30, 2022
Peer-review started: May 30, 2022
First decision: August 7, 2022
Revised: August 17, 2022
Accepted: October 11, 2022
Article in press: October 11, 2022
Published online: November 15, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients show increased susceptibility to bone fractures, despite their bone mineral density being normal or increased, leading to difficult identification for clinicians. The prevalence of T2D in adolescents and young adults is increasing alarmingly. Different researchers highlighted the mechanisms leading to bone fragility, and different critical altered pathways have been identified and studied. In this review, we described the different metabolic pathways responsible for bone fragility in patients with T2D. They can be useful for its management, although further studies are needed to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying bone fragility in T2D.