Published online Nov 15, 2018. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v9.i11.190
Peer-review started: July 30, 2018
First decision: August 27, 2018
Revised: September 15, 2018
Accepted: October 11, 2018
Article in press: October 11, 2018
Published online: November 15, 2018
Traditionally, breakfast skipping (BS), and recently late-night dinner eating (LNDE), have attracted attention in public health because they can predispose to cardiometabolic conditions such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Intriguingly, it has become evident that short duration of sleep elicits similar health risks. As LNDE, BS, and short sleep can be closely related and can aggravate each other, these three should not be considered separately. In this context, LNDE (or its equivalents, snacking or heavy alcohol consumption after dinner) and BS may be representative unhealthy eating habits around sleep (UEHAS). While it is important to take energy in the early morning for physical and intellectual activities, attaining a fasting state is essential for metabolic homeostasis. Our previous UEHAS studies have shown that BS without LNDE, i.e., BS alone, is not associated with obesity and diabetes, suggesting the possibility that BS or taking a very low energy breakfast, which could yield fasting for a while, may prevent obesity and diabetes in people with inevitable LNDE. Further studies considering UEHAS and short sleep simultaneously are needed to elucidate the effects of these unhealthy lifestyles on cardiometabolic diseases.
Core tip: Breakfast skipping (BS), late-night dinner eating (LNDE), and short duration of sleep have attracted attention because they elicit similar health risks: Obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, to-date these factors have been considered separately in terms of their health risks. LNDE and BS may be representative unhealthy eating habits around sleep (UEHAS). It is important to take energy in the early morning, whereas attaining a fasting state is essential for metabolic homeostasis. Therefore, BS or taking a very low energy breakfast may prevent obesity and diabetes in people with LNDE. Consideration of UEHAS and short sleep deserves further study.