Published online Jul 15, 2017. doi: 10.4239/wjd.v8.i7.358
Peer-review started: October 23, 2016
First decision: December 20, 2016
Revised: May 12, 2017
Accepted: June 6, 2017
Article in press: June 8, 2017
Published online: July 15, 2017
To examine sleep quality and its determinants among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
This is a cross-sectional study conducted among diabetic patients referring to Ardabil diabetes clinic in Northwest of Iran. Information on sleep quality was collected using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic lifestyle factors and psychological distress. This questionnaire was completed through an interview, and clinical information was extracted from patient’s record. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 23 and univariate and multivariate analyses.
Study participants consist of 256 people with T2DM the majority of whom were women (70%), and mean age of participants was 54.06 ± 9.09. The mean of total score of PSQI was 5.56 ± 3.34. Relative to younger age group, the middle-aged people with T2DM were twice more likely to be poor sleeper; the adjusted OR was 2.03 (95%CI: 1.01-4.08); and those with longer duration of diabetes were about 1.8 times more likely to report poor quality of sleep (ORadj = 1.77, 95%CI: 0.98-3.13). Participants with cholesterol level ≥ 240 mg/dL were about twice more likely to be poor sleeper (ORadj = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.01-3.94). The odds of being poor sleeper increased as the level of distress increased (1.84-4.09).
As indicated by the results of the present study, some factors including age, duration of disease, psychological distress and high level of cholesterol were independently associated with poor sleep quality.
Core tip: In Iran, diabetes is one of the health concerns with a prevalence of 8.5% because of lifestyle changes following rapid urbanization. Few studies have been conducted in Iran concerning quality of sleep among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the quality of sleep among people with type-2 diabetes referring to diabetes clinic in Ardabil, Northwest of Iran where diabetes is a health research priority in this province. The results showed that, age, duration of disease, psychological distress and high level of cholesterol were independently associated with poor sleep quality. Therefore, promotion of diabetes management, regular primary care and psychological consultation are recommended in order to improve sleep quality among people with type 2 diabetes.