Published online Apr 26, 2020. doi: 10.4252/wjsc.v12.i4.277
Peer-review started: December 1, 2019
First decision: January 13, 2020
Revised: March 19, 2020
Accepted: March 26, 2020
Article in press: March 26, 2020
Published online: April 26, 2020
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and premature ovarian failure (POF) have become one of the major problems threatening women of childbearing age. Studies have shown that stem cells transplanted from bone marrow, umbilical cord, peripheral blood and amniotic fluid can migrate and proliferate to the ovary, promote ovarian function repair, increase the number of follicles and granulosa cells at all levels of ovary, improve endocrine function, and can differentiate into oocytes in specific ovarian environment to restore fertility to some extent.
According to animal experiments, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have many advantages, such as easy collection, low immunogenicity, no tumourigenicity and no ethical restrictions, it bringing hope to improve ovarian function and restore fertility in patients with POI/POF.
In this study, the authors aimed to study the ability of hUCMSCs to repair ovarian injury after chemotherapy.
A total of 110 female BALB/c mice were fed until 12 wk of age, and cyclophosphamide was administered by intraperitoneal injection for 14 consecutive days to induce premature ovarian failure in mice. The mice in the hUCMSC group were injected with hUCMSCs in the tail vein, and the mice in the positive control group were given an oestradiol valerate solution and a medroxyprogesterone acetate solution in the tail vein.
Mice in the hUCMSC group and the positive control group resumed normal estrous cycles. The ovarian weight of the model group mice continued to decline. The ovarian weight of the hUCMSC group mice and the positive control group mice decreased first and then gradually increased, and the ovarian weight of the hUCMSC group mice was heavier than that of the positive control group mice. The model group experienced a decrease in oestradiol and an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone. The hUCMSC and positive control groups experienced a slight increase in oestradiol and a decrease in follicle-stimulating hormone. The pathological examination revealed that the mouse ovaries from the model group were atrophied, the volume was reduced, the cortical and medullary structures were disordered, the number of follicles at all stages was significantly reduced, the number of atretic follicles increased, the number of primordial follicles and corpus luteum significantly decreased, and the corpus luteum had an irregular shape. The lesions of the hUCMSC and positive control groups significantly improved.
hUCMSCs can repair ovarian tissue damaged by chemotherapy to a certain extent. And it can improve the degree of apoptosis in ovarian tissue, and improve the endocrine function of mouse ovaries.
The specific molecular mechanism requires further study.