Copyright ©2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc.
World J Gastroenterol. Dec 7, 2014; 20(45): 17029-17036
Published online Dec 7, 2014. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i45.17029
Table 1 In vitro and in vivo effects of apple extracts against colon cancer
Apple juice and itsComponentsModels(cell line/animal)Observation/resultRef.
Apple extractsHT29 and LT97 colon adenoma cell lineSCFA increased 1.5 fold in fermented samples[19]
SCFA stimulates apoptosis, differentiation and growth arrest
Composite mixture of apple extractsHT29 cellsPKC activity was decreased by 50% after 24 h exposure of 403 mg/mL[17]
Upstream signaling elements targeted after longer duration of exposure
Polyphenolic mixtures from cider, table apples and apple pomace; Phenolics such as phlorizin, rutin, quercetin and phloretinCaco-2 cells and HT29 colonic cell linesReduced oxidative damage[14]
Reduced the presence of butyl hydroperoxide-induced ROS
Caco-2 cellsInduction of p450 1A1 expression and inhibition of catalytic activity of the enzyme
Anthocyanidin-rich fraction of apple juiceHT29 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lineSignificant dose reduction in HT29 cells and not in MCF-7 cells[15]
MCF-7 cells are less responsive to extract exposure
Procyanidins of apple juice (polymeric polyphenols)SW620 adenocarcinoma-derived metastatic cells of colon cancerDose-dependent inhibition of cell growth[16]
50% of inhibition at 45 mg/mL and total inhibition at 70 mg/mL
Downregulation of signaling pathway such as cell proliferation and differentiation, PKC and enzymes involved in polyamine biosynthesis and stimulation of catabolism
Increased number of apoptotic cells and interruption in cell cycle
Apple phytochemicalsRats injected with azoxymethaneReduction in preneoplastic lesions and 50% fewer aberrant crypts
Apple juice extract; Synthetic mixture, isolated componentsHT29 cellsDecreased growth rate efficiently for 24, 48 and 72 h[18]
Increased the expression of genes which include phase-2 enzymes, including glutathone-s-transferases and sulfotransferases, which are involved in chemoprevention
Growth rate inhibition was less efficient comparatively
Lesser effectiveness than either mixture
Two preparation methods of apple juice: clear and cloudy (higher content of pectin and procyanidin)Rat model (induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine)Protection from dimethylhydrazine-induced genotoxic damage[20]
Important markers were reduced including decreased number of large aberrant crypt foci in the distal colon, reduced DNA damage and reduced hyper-proliferation
Polyphenolic-rich extractsRat model (induced with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine)Juice fractions were found to be more effective in protecting from damage compared to isolated fractions[21]