Published online Feb 21, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i7.2179
Peer-review started: June 27, 2015
First decision: September 29, 2015
Revised: November 10, 2015
Accepted: December 30, 2015
Article in press: December 30, 2015
Published online: February 21, 2016
Core tip: Over the last decades various dietary components like milk, fructose, salty foods and sweetened beverages have been implicated to play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), possibly by interacting with gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system. The role of nutrition in IBD is underscored by the effect of various dietary therapies. In paediatric patients with Crohn’s disease enteral nutrition reaches remission rates similar to steroids. The use of specific probiotics in patients with IBD can be recommended only in special clinical situations. A FODMAP reduced diet may improve symptoms in IBD.