Published online Jan 7, 2016. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i1.407
Peer-review started: June 27, 2015
First decision: September 11, 2015
Revised: October 15, 2015
Accepted: November 24, 2015
Article in press: November 24, 2015
Published online: January 7, 2016
Core tip: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) is associated with a grave prognosis if left untreated. Sorafenib is the only treatment modality recommended for treating HCC patients with PVTT according to most international HCC treatment guidelines. However, the survival benefits observed following systemic sorafenib treatment are only marginal. Under these circumstances, the need for better treatment options remains unfulfilled. In this comprehensive review, various treatment options are presented-including transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial radioembolization, hepatic arterial infusion, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy-and their outcomes, along with combination strategies.