Published online Nov 7, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i41.11654
Peer-review started: May 22, 2015
First decision: June 23, 2015
Revised: July 16, 2015
Accepted: September 22, 2015
Article in press: September 22, 2015
Published online: November 7, 2015
Core tip: Two main therapeutic strategies could reduce the incidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-related gastric cancer: eradication of the infection or vaccination. Success of a gastric cancer prevention strategy depends on the eradication of the infection or on vaccination before irreversible mucosal changes (severe atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia) have occurred. Eradication therapy results are suboptimal due to increased antibiotic resistance in H. pylori and patient noncompliance. To improve the rates of eradication, rescue regimens have been developed. Concomitant and sequential protocols seem equally effective rescue strategies. An effective vaccine is not available at present, in spite of enormous effort by different researchers.