Published online Dec 21, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i47.8822
Revised: October 25, 2013
Accepted: November 1, 2013
Published online: December 21, 2013
Core tip: Antiviral therapy reduces but does not eliminate the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic hepatitis B patients with or without cirrhosis. The reduction of the HCC incidence under a high genetic barrier nucleos(t)ide analogue is higher in the vast majority of patients who will achieve virological remission compared to those who may maintain detectable viral replication. In current clinical practice, however, patients at increased baseline HCC risk should continue to undergo HCC surveillance according to the existing recommendations even if they have achieved complete long-term inhibition of viral replication and improvements in liver histology.