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World J Gastroenterol. Aug 21, 2013; 19(31): 5035-5050
Published online Aug 21, 2013. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i31.5035
Portal hypertension and gastrointestinal bleeding: Diagnosis, prevention and management
Erwin Biecker
Erwin Biecker, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, HELIOS Klinikum Siegburg, 53129 Siegburg, Germany
Author contributions: Biecker E solely contributed to this paper.
Correspondence to: Erwin Biecker, MD, PhD, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, HELIOS Klinikum Siegburg, Ringstr. 49, 53129 Siegburg, Germany.
Telephone: +49-2241-187079 Fax: +49-2241-182486
Received: February 21, 2013
Revised: March 20, 2013
Accepted: May 16, 2013
Published online: August 21, 2013
Core Tip

Core tip: Gastrointestinal bleeding is a life threatening complication of portal hypertension. Primary prevention of bleeding in patients at risk for a first bleeding episode is therefore a major goal. The article gives a concise overview of possible bleeding sites in patients with portal hypertension. The diagnosis, prevention, therapy of acute bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of bleeding from esophageal and gastric varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy gastric antral vascular ectasia and ectopic varices are discussed.