Published online Nov 28, 2018. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v24.i44.4962
Peer-review started: September 10, 2018
First decision: October 24, 2018
Revised: October 30, 2018
Accepted: November 7, 2018
Article in press: November 8, 2018
Published online: November 28, 2018
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), which consists of monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages, plays a vital role in the innate immune defense against pathogens. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is efficient in evading the host immunity, thereby facilitating its development into chronic infection. Chronic HCV infection is the leading cause of end-stage liver diseases, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Acquired immune response was regarded as the key factor to eradicate HCV. However, innate immunity can regulate the acquired immune response. Innate immunity-derived cytokines shape the adaptive immunity by regulating T-cell differentiation, which determines the outcome of acute HCV infection. Inhibition of HCV-specific T-cell responses is one of the most important strategies for immune system evasion. It is meaningful to illustrate the role of innate immune response in HCV infection. With the MPS being the important factor in innate immunity, therefore, understanding the role of the MPS in HCV infection will shed light on the pathophysiology of chronic HCV infection. In this review, we outline the impact of HCV infection on the MPS and cytokine production. We discuss how HCV is detected by the MPS and describe the function and impairment of MPS components in HCV infection.
Core tip: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is efficient to develop into chronic infection. Innate immune system can shape the acquired immune response, which can eradicate HCV directly. As the main component of innate immunity, the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) plays a vital role in HCV infection. In this review, we discuss the interaction between the HCV and MPS. MPS can detect HCV to promote virus eradication, and HCV can shape the MPS to facilitate HCV persistence. We hope that this review will enable us to better understand HCV infection.