Published online Jul 21, 2015. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i27.8314
Peer-review started: December 23, 2014
First decision: February 10, 2015
Revised: April 1, 2015
Accepted: May 21, 2015
Article in press: May 21, 2015
Published online: July 21, 2015
AIM: To characterize high-mobility group protein 1-toll-like receptor 4 (HMGB1-TLR4) and downstream signaling pathways in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.
METHODS: Forty specific-pathogen-free male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 per group): sham, control, anti-HMGB1, anti-myeloid differentiation gene 88 (MyD88), and anti-translocating-chain-associating membrane protein (TRIF) antibody groups. Vehicle with the control IgG antibody, anti-HMGB1, anti-MyD88, or anti-TRIF antibodies (all 1 mg/kg, 0.025%) were injected via the caudal vein 30 min prior to ischemia. After anesthetization, the abdominal wall was opened and the superior mesenteric artery was exposed, followed by 60 min mesenteric ischemia and then 60 min reperfusion. For the sham group, the abdominal wall was opened for 120 min without I/R. Levels of serum nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured, along with myeloperoxidase activity in the lung and liver. In addition,morphologic changes that occurred in the lung and intestinal tissues were evaluated. Levels of mRNA transcripts encoding HMGB1 and NF-κB were measured by real-time quantitative PCR, and levels of HMGB1 and NF-κB protein were measured by Western blot. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance.
RESULTS: Blocking HMGB1, MyD88, and TRIF expression by injecting anti-HMGB1, anti-MyD88, or anti-TRIF antibodies prior to ischemia reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines in serum; NF-κB p65: 104.64 ± 11.89, 228.53 ± 24.85, 145.00 ± 33.63, 191.12 ± 13.22, and 183.73 ± 10.81 (P < 0.05); IL-6: 50.02 ± 6.33, 104.91 ± 31.18, 62.28 ± 6.73, 85.90 ± 17.37, and 78.14 ± 7.38 (P < 0.05); TNF-α, 43.79 ± 4.18, 70.81 ± 6.97, 52.76 ± 5.71, 63.19 ± 5.47, and 59.70 ± 4.63 (P < 0.05) for the sham, control, anti-HMGB1, anti-MyD88, and anti-TRIF groups, respectively (all in pg/mL).Antibodies also alleviated tissue injury in the lung and small intestine compared with the control group in the mouse intestinal I/R model. The administration of anti-HMGB1, anti-MyD88, and anti-TRIF antibodies markedly reduced damage caused by I/R, for which anti-HMGB1 antibody had the most obvious effect.
CONCLUSION: HMGB1 and its downstream signaling pathway play important roles in the mouse intestinal I/R injury, and the effect of the TRIF-dependent pathway is slightly greater.
Core tip: Intestinal mucosal barrier injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion is often the basis for a poor prognosis in many diseases. Despite extensive investigative efforts,the underlying mechanism remains a subject of debate, and there are currently no effective methods for its prevention or control. The findings reported here suggest that the high-mobility group protein 1-toll-like receptor 4 axis and the two downstream signaling pathways play important roles in ischemia/reperfusion injury and show potential therapeutic value for their blockade. This study has an important clinical significance, which could improve the survival rate and reduce complications in critically ill patients.