Published online Nov 21, 2008. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.6689
Revised: October 22, 2008
Accepted: October 29, 2008
Published online: November 21, 2008
AIM: To study the prevalence and risk factors associated with triple infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) in an urban clinic population.
METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 5639 patients followed at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital HIV Clinic (Center for Comprehensive Care) in New York City, USA from January 1999 to May 2007. The following demographic characteristics were analyzed: age, sex, race and HIV risk factors. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of demographic factors on acquisition of these viruses.
RESULTS: HIV/HBV, HIV/HCV and HIV/HBV/HCV infections were detected in 252/5639 (4.47%), 1411/5639 (25.02%) and 89/5639 (1.58%) patients, respectively. HIV/HBV co-infections were associated with male gender (OR 1.711; P = 0.005), black race (OR 2.091; P < 0.001), men having sex with men (MSM) (OR 1.747; P = 0.001), intravenous drug use (IDU) (OR 0.114; P < 0.001), IDU and heterosexual activity (OR 0.247; P = 0.018), or unknown (OR 1.984; P = 0.004). HIV/HCV co-infections were associated with male gender (OR 1.241; P = 0.011), black race (OR 0.788; P = 0.036), MSM (OR 0.565; P < 0.001), IDU (OR 8.956; P < 0.001), IDU and heterosexual activity (OR 9.106; P < 0.001), IDU and MSM (OR 9.179; P < 0.001), or transfusion (OR 3.224; P < 0.001). HIV/HBV/HCV co-infections were associated with male gender (OR 2.156; P = 0.015), IDU (OR 6.345; P < 0.001), IDU and heterosexual activity (OR 9.731; P < 0.001), IDU and MSM (OR 9.228; P < 0.001), or unknown (OR 4.219; P = 0.007).
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that co-infection with HBV/HCV/HIV is significantly associated with IDU. These results highlight the need to intensify education and optimal models of integrated care, particularly for populations with IDU, to reduce the risk of viral transmission.