Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
Artif Intell Cancer. Dec 8, 2023; 4(2): 11-22
Published online Dec 8, 2023. doi: 10.35713/aic.v4.i2.11
Artificial intelligence in rectal cancer: What is the future?
Alka Yadav, Ashok Kumar
Alka Yadav, Ashok Kumar, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014, UP, India
Author contributions: Yadav A wrote the manuscript; Kumar A conceptualized the idea, searched articles, and revised the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Ashok Kumar, BSc, FASCRS, FRCS, FRCS (Ed), FRCS (Hon), MBBS, MCh, MS, Professor, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226014, UP, India.
Received: July 15, 2023
Peer-review started: July 15, 2023
First decision: September 4, 2023
Revised: September 18, 2023
Accepted: September 25, 2023
Article in press: September 25, 2023
Published online: December 8, 2023

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer in both men and women, and it is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. Around 60%-70% of CRC patients are diagnosed at advanced stages, with nearly 20% having liver metastases. It is noteworthy that the 5-year survival rates decline significantly from 80%-90% for localized disease to a mere 10%-15% for patients with metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Early diagnosis, appropriate therapeutic strategy, accurate assessment of treatment response, and prognostication is essential for better outcome. There has been significant technological development in the last couple of decades to improve the outcome of rectal cancer including Artificial intelligence (AI). AI is a broad term used to describe the study of machines that mimic human intelligence, such as perceiving the environment, drawing logical conclusions from observations, and performing complex tasks. At present AI has demonstrated a promising role in early diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes for patients with rectal cancer, a limited role in surgical decision making, and had a bright future.

Keywords: Rectal cancer, Artificial intelligence, Role in treatment, Current status, Future implications

Core Tip: Early diagnosis and treatment decision making in rectal cancer significantly affects the outcome, which is multidisciplinary team approach and not without errors and bias. Newer technology artificial intelligence, has been found to be useful in early diagnosis, accurate staging, treatment planning and assessment of treatment response, however its evolving. The present review focuses its current role and future implications in the management of rectal cancer.