Published online Jun 28, 2021. doi: 10.35713/aic.v2.i3.25
Peer-review started: April 10, 2021
First decision: April 28, 2021
Revised: May 11, 2021
Accepted: June 22, 2021
Article in press: June 22, 2021
Published online: June 28, 2021
Malignant tumors are still a worldwide threat to human health. Tumor treatment strategies are constantly evolving, and the advent of tumor immunotherapy has brought up hope to many types of tumors, especially for those that are refractory to conventional therapies including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Tumor vaccines can initiate or amplify an anti-tumor immune response in tumor patients through active immunization, and therefore occupy an important position in tumor immunotherapy. The main types of tumor vaccines include tumor cell vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, polypeptide vaccines and nucleic acid vaccines. Due to factors such as poor antigen selection and suppressive tumor microenvironment, earliest tumor vaccines on clinical trials failed to achieve satisfactory clinical effects. However, with the development of second-generation genome sequencing technologies and bioinformatics tools, it is possible to predict neoantigens generated by tumor-specific mutations and therefore prepare personalized vaccines. This article summarizes the global efforts in developing tumor vaccines and highlights several representative tumor vaccines in each category.
Core Tip: There are many advancements in the field of cancer immunotherapy in the past decade such as the application of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell therapy. Tumor therapeutic vaccines have emerged as an additional effective treatment strategy due to their ability to trigger potent immune response. Typically, they are tumor cell vaccines, dendritic cell vaccines, peptide vaccines or nucleic acid vaccines. This article mainly reviews the current clinical status as well as research and development status of these four types of therapeutic tumor vaccines for those who are interested.