Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Clin Cases. Jun 26, 2019; 7(12): 1367-1382
Published online Jun 26, 2019. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i12.1367
Table 1 International guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance programs
GuidelineIndicationsAFPImagingPeriod (mo)
WHOHBV DNA > 2000 UI/mL, HCV cirrhosis+US6
CanadianCirrhosis, HBV chronic carriersUS6
NCCNCirrhosis, HBV chronic hepatitis+/-US6
JapanCirrhosis+US/dynamic CT/MRI3-6
Asia-Pacific> 200 ng/mLUS6
Table 2 International guidelines for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis
GuidelineLiver nodule USBiomarkersIndications for biomarkers
CanadianCT/MRI/CEUSAFP, AFP-L3, DCPLate stage/aggressive
AustralianCT/MRI/CEUS: Selected case
JapanCT/MRIAFP, AFP-L3, DCPDefinitive diagnosis, efficacy of treatment
Table 3 MicroRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma
miRNAHepatitis virusRef.
For early diagnosis
exosomal hnRNPH1 miRHBVXu et al[55]
miR-26HBVBalkan et al[56]
miR-88HBVLong et al[57]
mi-R-106bShi et al[58]
miR-125bLiu et al[59]
miR-4463Hu et al[60]
miR-10a, miR-122, miR-375, miR-423HBVAn et al[61]
miR-10b, miR-106b, miR-181aHBVJiang et al[62]
miR-17-5p, miR-29a, miR-106a, miR-122, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-192, miR-194HBVXue et al[63]
miR-21, mi-R106b, mi-R224HBVLiu et al[64]
miR-21Liao et al[65]
miR-21, miR-122, miR-199Ding et al[66]
miR-25, miR-375, let-7fXu et al[67]
miR-122, miR-148a, AFPHBVWang et al[68]
miRNA-23aHCVMohamed et al[69]
miR-19a, miR-146a, miR-192, and miR-195HCVMotawi et al[70]
miR-122, miR-224HCVAmr et al[71]
miR-125b, miR-214-5p, miR-375, miR-1269HCVElemeery et al[72]
miR-595, miR-939HCVFornari et al[73]
For overall survival and prognosis
miR-106aHBVXue et al[63]
miR-128-2HBVZhuang et al[74]
miR-192-5p and miR-29a-3pHBVZhu et al[75]
miR-23aHCVMohamed et al[69]
Table 4 LncRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma
LncRNAHepatitis virusRef.
For early diagnosis
LINC00152, RP11-160H22.5 and XLOC014172HBVYuan et al[80]
uc001ncr and AX800134HBVWang et al[81]
RP11–160H22.5, XLOC_014172 and LOC149086HBVTang et al[82]
UCA IHBVZheng et al[83]
ENSG00000258332.1, LINC00635HBVXu et al[84]
LINC00152, RP11-160H22.5, XLOC014172, LOC149086 or HULC, Linc00152 or uc001ncr, AX800134 or PVT1, uc002mbe.2Chen et al[85]
Predictors for poor prognosis
BANCRQin et al[88]
XLOC_014172 and LOC149086HBVTang et al[82]
UCA IHBVZheng et al[83]