Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Clin Cases. Aug 6, 2019; 7(15): 1908-1925
Published online Aug 6, 2019. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i15.1908
Figure 1
Figure 1 Modulation of osteoclast differentiation by serum TNF-α and anti-TNF-α treatment. A: TNF-α influences osteoclast precursor differentiation and bone resorption activity inducing RANKL expression on osteoblast cells and preventing the binding of OPG; B: Anti-TNF-α treatment reduces RANKL expression resulting in decrease of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Gut-bone immune signaling: interplay between different factors which may affect bone metabolism in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
Figure 3
Figure 3 Diagramatic representation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in alteration of bone mineral density in inflammatory bowel diseases.