Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Clin Cases. Jun 6, 2023; 11(16): 3680-3693
Published online Jun 6, 2023. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v11.i16.3680
Figure 1
Figure 1 Progression of external prolapse out of the anal canal. A-C: Prolapse becomes more evident with straining.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Differential diagnoses of rectal prolapse. A: Prolapsing hemorrhoids; B: Anal canal mass.
Figure 3
Figure 3 Dynamic magnetic resonance defecography images. A: Magnetic resonance imaging during rest; B: The red arrow indicates slight rectal intussusception and advanced pelvic prolapse present during straining; C: Pubococcygeal, M and H lines. The yellow line reveals severe rectocele accompanying pelvic prolapse.
Figure 4
Figure 4 A patient with external rectal prolapse who underwent an alternative procedure. A: External rectal prolapse; B: Altemeier procedure.
Figure 5
Figure 5 Laparoscopic and robotic ventral mesh rectopexy. A: Laparoscopic mesh placement before peritoneal closure; B: Robotic mesh placement before peritoneal closure.