Ghania Sohail, Xiaoyu Xu, Thomas A Tompkins, Lallemand Health Solutions Inc., Montreal, QC H4P 2R2, Canada
Mary C Christman, MCC Statistical Consulting, Gainesville, FL 32605, United States
Author contributions: Sohail G and Xu X contributed to acquisition of data, interpretation of data, drafting and revising the article; Christman MC contributed to analysis and interpretation of the data, drafting and revising the article; Tompkins TA contributed to study concept, data evaluation, critical revisions; final manuscript as submitted was reviewed and approved by all authors.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Sohail G, Xu X and Tompkins TA declare that they are paid employees of Lallemand Health Solutions Inc. (Montreal, QC), a company that studies, manufactures and sells probiotics globally, business-to-business, but not to consumers.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist statement: This systematic review with meta-analysis was prepared and revised according to the PRISMA 2009 guidelines and checklist.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Thomas A Tompkins, PhD, Research Director, Lallemand Health Solutions Inc., 6100 Avenue Royalmount, Montreal, QC H4P 2R2, Canada. email@example.com
Received: August 28, 2018
Peer-review started: August 28, 2018
First decision: October 5, 2018
Revised: October 16, 2018
Accepted: November 14, 2018
Article in press: November 15, 2018
Published online: December 6, 2018