Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. Sep 6, 2019; 7(17): 2420-2426
Published online Sep 6, 2019. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v7.i17.2420
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity: A review of literature
Sundar Gnanavel, Pawan Sharma, Pulkit Kaushal, Sharafat Hussain
Sundar Gnanavel, Child Mental Health Services, Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust, Durham DH1 4LW, United Kingdom
Pawan Sharma, Department of Psychiatry, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Patan 44700, Nepal
Pulkit Kaushal, Sharafat Hussain, Northumberland, Tyne and Wear NHS foundation Trust, Newcastle NE3 3XT, United Kingdom
Author contributions: Gnanavel S conceptualised and synthesised the review; Sharma P and Kaushal P contributed to different parts of the review; Hussain S proof read the manuscript, provided inputs for revising the manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: None of the authors have any conflicts of interest to declare pertaining to content of this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Sundar Gnanavel, MD, Doctor, Child Mental Health Services, Tees, Esk and Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust, North End, Durham DH1 4LW, United Kingdom.
Telephone: +44-73-41672503
Received: April 6, 2019
Peer-review started: April 8, 2019
First decision: June 21, 2019
Revised: July 10, 2019
Accepted: July 27, 2019
Article in press: July 27, 2019
Published online: September 6, 2019

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood. It is a clinically heterogenous condition with comorbidity posing a distinct challenge to diagnosing and managing these children and adolescents. This review aims to provide an overview of comorbidity with ADHD including other neurodevelopmental disorders, learning disorders, externalising and internalising disorders. Challenges in screening for, diagnosing and managing comorbidity with ADHD are summarised. Also, methodological challenges and future directions in research in this interesting field are highlighted.

Keywords: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Comorbidity, Review

Core tip: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogenous condition that is typically complicated by extensive comorbid conditions. Screening for comorbidity is imperative for appropriately managing these children and adolescents presenting with complex difficulties. Further research is required for elucidating the implications of comorbidity in terms of diagnosing and managing children with ADHD.