Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. Apr 16, 2017; 5(4): 128-133
Published online Apr 16, 2017. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v5.i4.128
Prosthetic reconstruction of the trachea: A historical perspective
Jagdeep S Virk, Henry Zhang, Reza Nouraei, Guri Sandhu
Jagdeep S Virk, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Royal National Throat, Nose, and Ear Hospital, London WC1X 8DA, United Kingdom
Henry Zhang, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Queen’s Hospital, Romford RM7 0AG, United Kingdom
Reza Nouraei, Guri Sandhu, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Charing Cross Hospital, London W6 8RF, United Kingdom
Author contributions: All authors contributed to this manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors of this article have no conflicts of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Henry Zhang, BMedSci MRCS, Specialty Registrar in Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Queen’s Hospital, Rom Valley Way, Romford RM7 0AG, United Kingdom.
Telephone: +44-792-1265304
Received: November 24, 2016
Peer-review started: November 25, 2016
First decision: December 15, 2016
Revised: January 17, 2017
Accepted: February 18, 2017
Article in press: February 20, 2017
Published online: April 16, 2017

This review discusses the history of tracheal reconstruction; from early work to future challenges. The focus is primarily on prosthetic tracheal reconstruction in the form of intraluminal stents, patch repairs, circumferential repairs and replacement of the trachea. A historical perspective of materials used such as foreign materials, autografts, allografts, xenografts and techniques, along with their advantages and disadvantages, is provided.

Keywords: Tracheal stenosis, Trachea, Prostheses and implants, Stents

Core tip: Reconstruction of tracheal defects has historically been difficult, predominantly due to the lack of an intrinsic blood supply. Direct anastomosis is generally considered to be the best option. For larger defects, stenting and prosthetic reconstruction remain the primary methodologies. In light of the recent scandal surrounding tracheal replacement, this article aims to give a historical review of tracheal reconstruction methods.