Published online Dec 16, 2014. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v2.i12.846
Revised: September 4, 2014
Accepted: September 16, 2014
Published online: December 16, 2014
Laparoscopy is one of the most frequently preferred surgical options in gynecological surgery and has advantages over laparotomy, including smaller surgical scars, faster recovery, less pain and earlier return of bowel functions. Generally, it is also accepted as safe and effective and patients tolerate it well. However, it is still an intra-abdominal procedure and has the similar potential risks of laparotomy, including injury of a vital structure, bleeding and infection. Besides the well-known risks of open surgery, laparoscopy also has its own unique risks related to abdominal access methods, pneumoperitoneum created to provide adequate operative space and the energy modalities used during the procedures. Bowel, bladder or major blood vessel injuries and passage of gas into the intravascular space may result from laparoscopic surgical technique. In addition, the risks of aspiration, respiratory dysfunction and cardiovascular dysfunction increase during laparoscopy. Large bowel injuries during laparoscopy are serious complications because 50% of bowel injuries and 60% of visceral injuries are undiagnosed at the time of primary surgery. A missed or delayed diagnosis increases the risk of bowel perforation and consequently sepsis and even death. In this paper, we aim to focus on large bowel injuries that happen during gynecological laparoscopy and review their diagnostic and management options.
Core tip: Large bowel injury during laparoscopy is a serious complication because 50% and 66% of bowel and visceral injuries are undiagnosed at the time of primary surgery. A missed or delayed diagnosis increases the risk of bowel perforation and consequently sepsis and death.