Case Report
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Clin Cases. Mar 26, 2023; 11(9): 2009-2014
Published online Mar 26, 2023. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v11.i9.2009
Transient ischemic attack induced by pulmonary arteriovenous fistula in a child: A case report
Jun Zheng, Qi-Yue Wu, Xia Zeng, Du-Fei Zhang
Jun Zheng, Qi-Yue Wu, Xia Zeng, Du-Fei Zhang, Department of Pediatrics, Hainan Women and Children’s Medical Center, Haikou 570000, Hainan Province, China
Author contributions: Zheng J and Zhang DF drafted the manuscript; Wu QY and Zeng X collected the clinical data; Zheng J and Zhang DF revised the manuscript for intellectual content; All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Supported by Scientific Research Project of Hainan Provincial Health Industry, China, No. 20A200081; and Clinical Medical Center Project of Hainan Province, China, No. QWYH202175.
Informed consent statement: Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors report having no relevant conflicts of interest for this article.
CARE Checklist (2016) statement: The authors have read the CARE Checklist (2016), and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the CARE Checklist (2016).
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Du-Fei Zhang, MBBS, Chief Physician, Director, Department of Pediatrics, Hainan Women and Children’s Medical Center, No. 17 Changbin Road, Xiuying District, Haikou 570000, Hainan Province, China.
Received: November 12, 2022
Peer-review started: November 12, 2022
First decision: January 30, 2023
Revised: February 1, 2023
Accepted: March 3, 2023
Article in press: March 3, 2023
Published online: March 26, 2023
Processing time: 124 Days and 17 Hours

Cerebral ischemic stroke is attributed to paradoxical cerebral embolism. Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) is a rare potential cause of cerebral ischemic stroke, and cerebral ischemic stroke induced by PAVF in children is rare.


We report a case of right PAVF that presented as a transient ischemic attack (TIA) in a 13-year-old boy. The patient underwent embolization therapy and remained clinically stable for 2 years after treatment.


TIA induced by PAVF in children is rare, lacks typical clinical manifestations, and should not be ignored.

Keywords: Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula, Transient ischemic attack, Paradoxical cerebral embolism, Children, Case report

Core Tip: Pulmonary arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) is a rare potential cause of cerebral ischemic stroke. Children with PAVF have atypical clinical presentations, and even present with cerebral ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack as the only clinical finding. If a PAVF is suspected, we recommend that appropriate examinations should be performed for early detection, and then active treatment and follow-up should be offered.