Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Methodol. Mar 20, 2021; 11(2): 15-22
Published online Mar 20, 2021. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v11.i2.15
Table 1 Causes and mechanisms involved in the development of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides olfactory dysfunction
Conductive causes
Laudien et al[11], 200976 GPA patientsNo correlation between localised disease and a higher degree of olfactory dysfunction
Laudien et al[15], 201089 GPA patientsNo correlation between olfactory function and colonisation with Staphylococcus aureus
Fasunla et al[6], 201216 GPA patientsNo difference in the olfactory performance between patients with and without septal perforation
Proft et al[8], 201444 GPA patientsDecrease in olfactory function could be a consequence of the inflammatory disease in the nose rather than the local manifestations (bloody nasal discharge, crusting, granulomata)
Zycinska et al[9], 201643 GPA patientsActive and chronic sinonasal inflammation (rhinosinusitis) in GPA patients seems to be the more likely cause for the reported olfactory dysfunction. Olfactory dysfunction is more common in GPA patients with increased crusting, pathological granulation but also a higher Lund-MacKay score
Sensorineural causes
Fauci et al[17], 198385 GPA patientsCranial nerve involvement reported in 7.4% of GPA patients
Nishino et al[18], 1993324 GPA patientsCranial nerves involvement reported in 6.5% of GPA patients even if first cranial nerve was rarely involved
Other factors
Laudien et al[11], 200976 GPA patientsGPA patients receiving local mupirocin treatment showed no olfactory dysfunction. No correlation between kidney involvement and smell function
Göktas et al[7], 20109 GPA patientsNeither the disease duration nor the age appear to influence smell function
Fasunla et al[6], 201216 GPA patientsNo correlation between kidney involvement and smell function. GPA patients with and without past history of sinonasal operations did not show any significant difference in sense of smell
Proft et al[8], 201444 GPA patientsGPA patients with elevated CRP values showed lower scores from smell tests. GPA patients with a higher extent of damage showed a tendency for reduced scores only for the threshold, but not for the identification, the discrimination or the total score (TDI score). No correlation between kidney involvement and smell function. GPA patients under therapy with azathioprine showed significantly lower scores only for odour discrimination. GPA patients undergoing low-dose GC therapy showed a tendency for lower thresholds scores compared to patients without GC therapy
Tallab et al[12], 20141 EGPA patientSubjective improvement of smell function after immunosuppressive therapy