Published online Mar 20, 2021. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v11.i2.15
Peer-review started: December 19, 2020
First decision: December 31, 2020
Revised: January 2, 2021
Accepted: February 19, 2021
Article in press: February 19, 2021
Published online: March 20, 2021
Olfactory dysfunction (OD) has been described in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides (AAV), but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. The causes of altered smell function can generally be divided into conductive, sensorineural or others. To date no specific treatment is available for AAV-related OD and the efficacy of currently available options has not been explored. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the causes that may lead to OD in patients with AAV. Current available treatments for OD and possible options in patients with AAV presenting with smell impairment are also mentioned.
Core Tip: Olfactory dysfunction may develop during the course of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides. Typically, this is caused by a com-bination of active and chronic sinonasal inflammation causing necrosis and atrophic changes in the nasal mucosa, sensorineural involvement as well as other systemic factors. Systemic treatment of the vasculitis, control of coexisting rhinosinusitis, and management of nasal complications are recommended and could lead to an improvement in olfactory function.