Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Methodol. Mar 20, 2021; 11(2): 15-22
Published online Mar 20, 2021. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v11.i2.15
Olfactory dysfunction in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides: A review of the literature
Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Anika Kaura, Annakan V Navaratnam, Monica Pendolino, Gerolamo Bianchi, Samit Unadkat, Giancarlo Ottaviano, Premjit S Randhawa, Peter J Andrews
Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Anika Kaura, Annakan V Navaratnam, Samit Unadkat, Premjit S Randhawa, Peter J Andrews, Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Royal National ENT and Eastman Dental Hospitals, London WC1E 6DG, United Kingdom
Alfonso Luca Pendolino, Anika Kaura, Peter J Andrews, Ear Institute, University College London, London WC1X 8EE, United Kingdom
Monica Pendolino, Gerolamo Bianchi, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Locomotor System, ASL 3, Genoa 16121, Italy
Giancarlo Ottaviano, Department of Neurosciences DNS, Otolaryngology Section, University of Padua, Padua 35128, Italy
Author contributions: Pendolino AL designed the study, performed the literature search and wrote the paper; Kaura A prepared the table and reviewed the paper; Navaratnam AV, Pendolino M, Bianchi G, Unadkat S, Randhawa PS and Ottaviano G reviewed the paper; Andrews PJ coordinated the writing of the paper and reviewed the final version.
Conflict-of-interest statement: There is no conflict of interest associated with any of the senior author or other co-authors contributed their efforts in this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Alfonso Luca Pendolino, MD, Academic Fellow, Surgeon, Department of Ear, Nose and Throat, Royal National ENT and Eastman Dental Hospitals, 47-49 Huntley Street, Bloomsbury, London WC1E 6DG, United Kingdom.
Received: December 19, 2020
Peer-review started: December 19, 2020
First decision: December 31, 2020
Revised: January 2, 2021
Accepted: February 19, 2021
Article in press: February 19, 2021
Published online: March 20, 2021
Core Tip

Core Tip: Olfactory dysfunction may develop during the course of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides. Typically, this is caused by a com-bination of active and chronic sinonasal inflammation causing necrosis and atrophic changes in the nasal mucosa, sensorineural involvement as well as other systemic factors. Systemic treatment of the vasculitis, control of coexisting rhinosinusitis, and management of nasal complications are recommended and could lead to an improvement in olfactory function.