Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Methodol. Nov 20, 2022; 12(6): 465-475
Published online Nov 20, 2022. doi: 10.5662/wjm.v12.i6.465
Impact of gender-affirming hormone therapy on the development of COVID-19 infections and associated complications: A systematic review
Jennifer J Ferraro, Allie Reynolds, Sylvia Edoigiawerie, Michelle Y Seu, Sydney R Horen, Amir Aminzada, Alireza Hamidian Jahromi
Jennifer J Ferraro, Michelle Y Seu, Sydney R Horen, Amir Aminzada, Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, United States
Allie Reynolds, Undergraduate Studies, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, United States
Sylvia Edoigiawerie, Medical School, The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637, United States
Alireza Hamidian Jahromi, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Temple University Health System, Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States
Author contributions: Hamidian Jahromi A contributed to conceptualization and manuscript editing; Ferraro JJ, Reynolds A, Edoigiawerie S, Seu MY, Horen SR, Aminzada A contributed to writing, statistical analysis, and manuscript editing; All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare that they have no conflicting interests.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist statement: The authors have read the PRISMA 2009 Checklist, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the PRISMA 2009 Checklist.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Alireza Hamidian Jahromi, MD, Doctor, Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Temple University Health System, 3401 N Broad St., Philadelphia, PA 19140, United States.
Received: April 11, 2022
Peer-review started: April 11, 2022
First decision: June 27, 2022
Revised: July 14, 2022
Accepted: October 5, 2022
Article in press: October 5, 2022
Published online: November 20, 2022
Core Tip

Core Tip: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can produce a wide range of clinical manifestations from asymptomatic to life-threatening. Differences in individual responses to systemic inflammation and coagulopathy appear to be modulated by several factors, including sex steroid hormones. Androgens may facilitate initial coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, however, once this occurs, testosterone may have a protective effect. The role of estrogen and progesterone has also been proposed as potential protective factors in COVID-19 infection. Few studies have investigated the role of gender-affirming hormone therapy in COVID-19 infections. Additional research is necessary to enhance our understanding of this relationship and provide better care for transgender patients.