Published online Dec 6, 2012. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v1.i6.155
Revised: November 13, 2012
Accepted: November 25, 2012
Published online: December 6, 2012
Circulating toxins namely: free radicals, cytokines and metabolic products induce glomerular endothelial dysfunction, hemodynamic maladjustment and chronic ischemic state;this leads to tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Altered vascular homeostasis observed in late stage CKD revealed defective angiogenesis and impaired nitric oxide production explaining therapeutic resistance to vasodilator treatment in late stage CKD. Under current practice, CKD patients are diagnosed and treated at a rather late stage due to the lack of sensitivity of the diagnostic markers available. This suggests the need for an alternative therapeutic strategy implementing the therapeutic approach at an early stage. This view is supported by the normal or mildly impaired vascular homeostasis observed in early stage CKD. Treatment at this early stage can potentially enhance renal perfusion, correct the renal ischemic state and restore renal function. Thus, this alternative therapeutic approach would effectively prevent end-stage renal disease.