Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Psychiatr. Jun 19, 2020; 10(6): 125-138
Published online Jun 19, 2020. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v10.i6.125
Table 1 Features of neuropsychiatric disorders after stroke
DisordersPrevalence/ frequency, %Main clinical manifestationsScreening toolsIdentificationManagement and treatment
Depressive disorders after stroke5-84Depressed mood; marked reduction in interest or pleasure in activities; decreased/increased appetite/weight; insomnia or hypersomnia; psychomotor agitation/retardation; loss of energy/fatigue; feelings of worthlessness/inappropriate guilt; loss of concentration; appear pessimistic about health issues/recurrent thoughts of death or suicideCenter for epidemiological studies-depression scale; hospital anxiety depression scale; Hamilton depression rating scale; beck depression inventory; geriatric depression scale; PHQ-9According to the DSM-5 classification, PSD is defined as a depressive disorder due to TIA or stroke.SSRIs and SNRIs; psychological intervention; mental and physical exercise; neuromodulation
Anxiety disorders after stroke20-24Prominent anxiety; excessive fear, worry, and concern about health issues; intense dread or uneasiness; panic attacks, or obsessions or compulsions predominateHamilton anxiety scale; hospital anxiety and depression scale-anxiety subscaleAccording to the DSM-5 classification, PSA is defined as an anxiety disorder due to TIA or stroke.SSRIs; Tricyclic antidepressant; benzodiazepines; “Z-drugs" (zolpidem, zaleplon and eszopiclone); psychological interventions; mind-body interventions
PTSD after stroke8.3-29.6Intrusive memories; alterations in physical reactions and arousal; avoidance; negative alterations in cognition and moodPTSD checklist for a stressor, TIA or stroke as stressor; clinician administered PTSD scale; impact of events scale-revised; posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale; structured clinical interview for DSMPTSD is related to TIA or stroke which creates psychological trauma in response to actual or threatened death, serious injury, and adverse life events.Psychotherapeutic approach procedures; antidepressants, anxiolytics sympathetic inhibitor, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and sedative drugs
Psychosis and psychotic disorders after stroke4.67-5.05Hallucinations or delusions; disorganized speech; catatonic or inappropriate motor behaviorNeuropsychiatric inventoryAccording to the DSM-5 classification post-stroke psychotic disorders are defined as psychotic disorders due to TIA or stroke.Antipsychotic drugs; neuromodulation and psychosocial therapy; psychological intervention