Published online Mar 22, 2015. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v5.i1.47
Peer-review started: October 8, 2014
First decision: November 14, 2014
Revised: November 20, 2014
Accepted: December 29, 2014
Article in press: December 31, 2014
Published online: March 22, 2015
Core tip: In line with the translational approach of viewing disorders in terms of dysregulation of brain basic mechanisms, there is increasing evidence of overlap between different mental disorders. Here, we explore relationships between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia, in light of recent insights into potential common etiological mechanisms explaining some of the observed overlap in both disorders. Using evidence from clinical epidemiology and neuropsychology, we propose a biologically-based reconsideration of these brain diseases. We have also summarized environmental risk factors for both disorders, aiming to promote awareness regarding the need of appropriate interventions to prevent the onset and development of these diseases.