Observational Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2018. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Psychiatr. Sep 20, 2018; 8(3): 88-96
Published online Sep 20, 2018. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v8.i3.88
Drinking plain water is associated with decreased risk of depression and anxiety in adults: Results from a large cross-sectional study
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Awat Feizi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Nafiseh Rashidi-Pourfard, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Hamid Roohafza, Payman Adibi
Fahimeh Haghighatdoost, Food Security Research Center and Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
Awat Feizi, Psychosomatic Research Center, Integrative Functional Gastrointestinal Research Center and Biostatistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjarib, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 14176-53761, Iran
Nafiseh Rashidi-Pourfard, Shahid Motahari Hospital, Fooladshahr, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AL 54321, Canada
Hamid Roohafza, Cardiac Rehabilitation Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
Payman Adibi, Integrative Functional Gastrointestinal Research Center and Gastroenterology Section, Department of Internal Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran
Author contributions: Haghighatdoost F and Feizi A contributed to statistical analysis, data interpretation and manuscript drafting; Esmaillzadeh A contributed to SEPAHAN study concepts and design, data collection and drafting of the manuscript; Rashidi-Pourfard N contributed to statistical analysis, data interpretation and manuscript drafting; Keshteli AH, Roohafza H and Adibi P contributed to SEPAHAN study concepts and design, data collection and drafting of the manuscript; Feizi A supervised the current secondry study; all authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Institutional review board statement: The study protocol was approved by the bioethics committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (#189069, #189082, #189086).
Informed consent statement: All study participants provided an informed consent statement.
Conflict-of-interest statement: None of the authors had any personal or financial conflicts of interest.
STROBE statement: The guidelines of the STROBE statement have been adopted.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Correspondence to: Awat Feizi, PhD, Full Professor, Psychosomatic Research Center, Integrative Functional Gastrointestinal Research Center and Biostatistics and Epidemiology Department, School of Health Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjarib, Isfahan 81746-73461, Iran. awat_feiz@hlth.mui.ac.ir
Telephone: +98-313-792 3250 Fax: +98-313-7923232
Received: February 14, 2018
Peer-review started: February 14, 2018
First decision: March 2, 2018
Revised: April 23, 2018
Accepted: June 9, 2018
Article in press: June 9, 2018
Published online: September 20, 2018
ARTICLE HIGHLIGHTS
Research background

Drinking a plenty of plain water has been known as a healthy behavior.

Research motivation

The association between drinking water and mental disorders has not been investigated.

Research objectives

We aimed to assess whether drinking water is associated with mental disorders, and also examine the sex-specific associations.

Research methods

Three thousand three hundred and twenty-seven adults in a cross-sectional study were categorized into three groups according the amount of water drinking (< 2, 2-5, and ≥ 5 glasses of water/d). The risk of depression and anxiety was evaluated across different categories.

Research results

After controlling for various potential confounders, we found inverse associations between plain water consumption and depression, whilst for anxiety tended to be significant. These findings warrant evaluation in prospective studies to establish the plausible role of water in the mental health status.

Research conclusions

There were inverse associations between plain water consumption and common psychological disorders.

Research perspectives

Prospective studies to establish the plausible role of water consumption levels in the mental health status are needed.