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World J Psychiatr. Nov 19, 2021; 11(11): 1017-1026
Published online Nov 19, 2021. doi: 10.5498/wjp.v11.i11.1017
Neurodevelopmental disorders: An innovative perspective via the response to intervention model
Celestino Rodríguez, Debora Areces, Trinidad García, Marisol Cueli, Paloma Gonzalez-Castro
Celestino Rodríguez, Debora Areces, Trinidad García, Marisol Cueli, Paloma Gonzalez-Castro, Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Oviedo 33003, Asturias, Spain
Author contributions: Areces D contributed conceptualization; Rodríguez C and Areces D contributed methodology, software; Areces D contributed formal analysis; Rodríguez C contributed investigation; Rodríguez C and Cueli M contributed resources; Areces D and García T contributed data curation; Areces D contributed original draft preparation; Rodríguez C and Gonzalez-Castro P contributed review and editing; Areces D contributed visualization; Rodríguez C contributed supervision, and project administration; all authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
Supported by Ministry of Sciences and Innovation I+D+i Project, No. PID2019-107201GB-100; and Principality of Asturias, No. FC-GRUPIN-IDI/2018/000199.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors declare no conflicts of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Celestino Rodríguez, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Room 225, Fac Psicol, Oviedo 33003, Asturias, Spain.
Received: February 25, 2021
Peer-review started: February 25, 2021
First decision: June 5, 2021
Revised: June 18, 2021
Accepted: September 26, 2021
Article in press: September 26, 2021
Published online: November 19, 2021

Neurodevelopmental disorders are a group of conditions classified together by the most recent edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which include intellectual disability, communication disorders, autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, specific learning disorder (SLD), and motor disorders. SLD is present in many students, who exhibit significant difficulties in the acquisition of reading, written expression, and mathematics, mostly due to problems with executive functions (EF). The present study is a review of the current situation of neurodevelopmental disorders and SLD focusing on the benefits of the response to intervention model (RtI), which allows the combination of evaluation and intervention processes. It also addresses the key role of EF. The importance of adapting RtI to new possibilities such as the use of virtual reality is discussed and a theoretical framework for carrying that out is provided.

Keywords: Neurodevelopmental disorders, Specific learning disorder, Response to intervention model, Virtual reality

Core Tip: The present study aims to look deeply into detection of and intervention for students with neurodevelopmental disorders. It includes a description of the current situation of neurodevelopmental disorders focusing on specific learning disorder and executive functions as key aspects in students with problems in reading, writing, and mathematics. The study also presents the evaluation and intervention of neurodevelopmental disorders using an approach via the Response to Intervention model and provides a novel avenue for implementation related to the use of virtual reality.